working-to-reduce-prejudice.pdf - Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy Vol 11 No 1 2011 pp 263-284 Bystander Anti-Racism A Review of the

working-to-reduce-prejudice.pdf - Analyses of Social Issues...

This preview shows page 1 - 3 out of 22 pages.

Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2011, pp. 263--284 Bystander Anti-Racism: A Review of the Literature Jacqueline K. Nelson and Kevin M. Dunn University of Western Sydney Yin Paradies University of Melbourne This review of literature on anti-racist prosocial action points to the strong and largely untapped policy potential of bystander anti-racism. Bystander anti-racism is conceptualized as action taken by “ordinary” people in response to incidents of interpersonal or systemic racism. The utility of bystander anti-racism is also demonstrated, with evidence suggesting productive effects for targets and by- standers, as well as perpetrators. The relative merits of confrontational or diplo- matic action are reviewed, as is the delicate balance between communicating disapproval and maintaining interpersonal relations. The potential of bystander anti-racism will be enhanced where there are social norms that are intolerant of racism. The literature has paid little attention to the influence of context or to affective drivers of bystander anti-racism. We recommend changes to Ashburn- Nardo’s five-stage Confronting Prejudice Model, to better facilitate anti-racism policy and practice. The additions adapt the model to organizational settings, and more strongly acknowledge the importance of social norms and contexts, as well as the specific functions of racism. Through these changes, there is a scope to increase the prominence of bystander anti-racism as a vital element of anti-racism policy. Racism can be broadly defined as a phenomenon that maintains or exacerbates avoidable and unfair inequalities in power, resources, or opportunities across racial, ethnic, cultural, or religious groups in society. Racism can be expressed through beliefs (e.g., negative and inaccurate stereotypes), emotions (e.g., fear Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Jacqueline Nelson, School of Social Sciences, University of Western Sydney, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith South DC NSW 1797, Australia. [e-mail: [email protected]]. This article is based on a report commissioned by the Victorian Health Promotion Foundation. The first author is supported by an Australian Research Council scholarship. The third author is supported by a University of Melbourne McKenzie Fellowship. 263 DOI: 10.1111/j.1530-2415.2011.01274.x C 2011 The Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues
Image of page 1
264 Nelson, Dunn, and Paradies or hatred), or behaviors/practices (e.g., unfair treatment) (Berman & Paradies, 2010). Bystander anti-racism is a unique form of action that primarily addresses behaviors or practices. Racism continues to be an enduring worldwide social problem (Dunn, Forrest, Pe-Pua, Hynes, & Maeder-Han, 2009; European Commission, 2008; Karlsen, 2007; Simon, 2004; Statistics Canada, 2003; The Ombudsman Against Ethnic Discrimination, 2007), which may even be worsening (United Nations, 2009). Essed (1991) coined the term “everyday racism” to describe how racism is recurrent and normalized, “infused into familiar practices” such as jokes, everyday exclusions, and racist talk (p. 3). In spite of the everyday nature of much racism,
Image of page 2
Image of page 3

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 22 pages?

  • Fall '16

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern

Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask ( soon) You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes