101-2016 03 L11.pdf - Organic Chemistry Hydrocarbon...

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1 Organic Chemistry: Hydrocarbon Nomenclature Chapter 20 -no reactions tested
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2 Common Elements in Organic Compounds - The study of carbon compounds! Many, many more organic compounds than inorganic compounds.
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3 Classification of Hydrocarbons Hydrocarbons are made up of only hydrogen and carbon . - Most organic compounds originate from hydrocarbons - Contain one or more benzene rings - Not covered in 101
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4 Part 1: Simple Hydrocarbons General Form: (root)(suffix) Step 1: Find longest continuous chain of carbon atoms. This gives the root (parent name) of the hydrocarbon. Step 2: Determine the suffix for the root. Step 3: Combine the root and suffix to form the name. # of carbons root 1 meth 2 eth 3 prop 4 but 5 pent 6 hex 7 hept 8 oct 9 non 10 dec hydrocarbon bond type suffix alkane single ane alkene at least 1 double ene alkyne at least 1 triple yne
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5 Example 1. Name the following compounds: a) b)
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6 Example 2. Draw the structures for: a) nonane b) ethyne
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Alkanes saturated hydrocarbons because they contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms that can bond with the number of carbon atoms in the molecule CH 4 C 2 H 6 C 3 H 8 CH 3 -CH 3 CH 3 -CH 2 -CH 3 Molecular formula: Structural formula: Lewis Structure: CH 4 Line bond Structure:
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8 Physical Properties of Some Alkanes
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9 Structural isomers are molecules that have the same molecular formula but different branching. Isomers: same molecular formula, different structures Saturated 4 carbon molecule: C 4 H 10
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Isomers same molecular formula, different structures Constitutional Isomers different connectivity Structural Positional Functional CH 3 -CH 2 -OH CH 3 -O-CH 3 Stereoisomers Same connectivity, different arrangement of atoms in space Enantiomers chiral mirror images Diasteriomers non-mirror images Configurational Geometric Stereoisomerism about a C=C bond or a ring 10 - atoms are connected in a different way CHEM 101 CHEM 102
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