Week Two Discussion Questions - Aubrey Cole POLS.330.03...

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Aubrey Cole POLS.330.03 9/8/2019 Week 2 Discussion Questions ADD EXAMPLES!!!!! 1.) What was the enlightenment? The enlightenment period occurred in the 17th and 18th centuries. The enlightenment is also known as the "century of philosophy". During this period there was a revival in philosophical and intellectual pursuits, and the importance of . During this time people began to question the traditional rulers and embrace the belief that humanity could change based on rational thoughts and actions. During this time a multitude of scientific advances, laws, books, inventions, essays, and revolutions occured. Some of the key figures were Locke, Kant, and Mantesquieu. Much of the information was spread by the printing press, as it had just been adapted to Europe. Many of the ideas used by the American colonists, first the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution, were taken from the Enlightenment philosophers. The Enlightenment was a key time period for the development of human rights. 2.) What is natural law? Natural law is the belief that certain rights and freedoms cannot be obstructed based on the other laws of a country or state. Natural states that certain rights, moral values, and responsibilities are inherent to mankind thus one cannot prevent these from being acted upon. Should not be questioned 3.) What are natural rights? Natural rights are what comes from natural law. It is the most simple form of human rights. They are inalienable and cannot be taken away. John Locke, a philosopher who wrote on this subject, states that there are three natural rights "life, liberty, and property,” whereas the U.S. constitution has changed it to "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness". 4.) How did the conservatives criticize human rights? (Refer back to Edmund Burke.) The conservatives rejected the belief that all rights were natural. They believed that human rights were an 'Archimedian point” that exists beyond the control of the government by which the government could be judged. They believed that the only reason why man had rights was due to the organic institutions and traditions of society and government. 5.) How did Jeremy Bentham (utilitarianism) critique human rights? Bentham dismissed the rights due to the fact he believed that unreal rights stem from unreal law, or natural law. He believed that the only true law to listen to was divine-law, which was a given. If one wants to live in democracy make positive rights and laws Rights should be made from people not a supreme being To form liberal rights and democracy one should speak of reforms
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regarding the law Positive law is usually contrasted with natural law Natural law 6.) How did Marxists and other socialists critique the general idea of human rights?
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