EPIDEMIOLOGY PAPER_HepB.doc - GCU – EPIDEMIOLOGY PAPER EPIDEMIOLOGY PAPER ROXANA STEFAN GRAND CANYON UNIVERSITY NRS 427VN GCU – EPIDEMIOLOGY PAPER

EPIDEMIOLOGY PAPER_HepB.doc - GCU – EPIDEMIOLOGY PAPER...

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GCU – EPIDEMIOLOGY PAPER EPIDEMIOLOGY PAPER ROXANA STEFAN GRAND CANYON UNIVERSITY NRS 427VN 02/17/2019
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GCU – EPIDEMIOLOGY PAPER 1.Describe the chosen communicable disease, including causes, symptoms, mode of transmission, complications, treatment, and the demographic of interest (mortality, morbidity, incidence, and prevalence). Is this a reportable disease? If so, provide details about reporting time, whom to report to, etc. Hepatitis B is a serious liver infection. The infection is caused by the Hepatitis B virus (HBV). The HBV virus attacks the liver cells and can lead to liver cancer, cirrhosis (scarring) or liver failure. Hepatitis B is spread through contact with contaminated body fluids – blood is most common, but infected semen, saliva or cervical secretions could also contribute to the spread of the disease. Hepatitis B can be transmitted perinatally (from infected mother to the neonate), via sexual contact, by blood transfusions or dialysis. Hepatitis B has the highest occurrence rate in the Western Asia-Pacific region and Africa, where 6% of the adult population is infected, according to WHO. The Hepatitis B virus can live outside the body for seven days. During that time, it is still able to spread infection. The incubation period is about between 30 and 180 days. Most people do not experience symptoms during the acute phase of the disease. However, some people experience symptoms like: jaundice, extreme fatigue, dark urine, nausea, vomiting; some can experience acute liver failure, which can cause death. The disease can last from several weeks up to six months. Infants are at the most risk when contracting the disease, as 80-90% of them will develop chronic infections. Only 50-60% of children between 1 year and 6 years will develop chronic infections when contracting the disease. 5% of the healthy adult population and 30% of the chronically infected population will develop cirrhosis or liver cancer. There are about 250 million people around the world with chronic Hepatitis B. In the US, there are around 3,000 cases of acute Hepatitis B reported annually, but, as symptoms are not present in many cases, the illness is not reported or diagnosed. CDC estimated that the actual number of Hep B cases was 20,000 in 2016. An estimated number of 850,000 number of people have chronic Hepatitis B, according to the same institution. The Hepatitis B infection can be diagnosed by blood tests: Hepatitis B surface antigen, Hepatitis B surface Antibody, IgM antibody, Hepatitis B viral DNA test. There is no medication that treats Hepatitis B in its acute phase, the recommended treatment is adequate rest, nutrition and fluids. The chronic Hepatitis B patients should be monitored for signs of liver damage. Several drugs have been developed for the treatment of chronic Hep B: five nucleoside analogues and two types of interferon.
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