Midterm - Aubrey Cole POLS 330.05 Midterm Essays 1 According to the United Nations Population Fund up to 200 million girls are subjected to “Female

Midterm - Aubrey Cole POLS 330.05 Midterm Essays 1...

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Aubrey Cole POLS 330.05 Midterm Essays 1.) According to the United Nations Population Fund , up to 200 million girls are subjected to “Female Genital Mutilation” (FGM). Do these surgeries violate the girls’ human rights? Which ones? Why do many communities continue the practice? Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is a practice that is still custom in thirty countries today in Africa, the Middle East and Asia. This custom is done in order to preserve the chastity of the girl and to preserve her virginity until she is married. FGM occurs among young females, normally having this done by the age of fifteen. Female Genital mutilation is the reflection of the gender-inequality of a community or culture. Some practicers beleive that FGM is used to control the secuality of a young girl, while others partake as it is a social norm and those that do not perform FGM are ostricized. FGM is also viewed as an intiation into womanhood, as the uncut clitoris can be associated with male genitals. This surgery is seen as remove all masculine elements from a female, therefore making her pure. Religion is another factor that leads to communities and cultures practising FGM. Some groups use religions such as Islam and Christianity to justify the practice, when it is not actually justified by the doctrine, whereas other cultures practice religions that promote FGM. A final reason for taking part in FGM is the ability to marry of a daughter. Certain communities require that before a girl is married she undergoes FGM in order to show her commitment to her husband
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and to prevent future adultry. Female Circumsion, better known as FGM, is harmful to the girls forced to undergo this procedure. During the surgery the young woman faces the risk of hemorrhaging, as healthy parts of the clitoris are removed. The surgery is usually performed by an untrained professional which can lead to infection of the wounds, menstrual problems, scar tissue and keloid, and urinary problems. During the surgery the female also risks shock and death. Currently there are four types of FGM. Type One, the clitoridectimy, consists of total or partial removal of the clitoris and the prepuce that surrounds it. The second type, occurs when the clitoris and the labia minora are completely removed. The most serious type of FGM is type three. Type three is also known as the infibulation or pharaonic type, and is when the vaginal hole is narrowed by the cutting and repositioning of the labia minora and labia majora. During the healing process the girl's legs are usually bound together in order to hold the newly stitched areas together. This surgery leaves the female's genital region practically sewn together with the exception of a hole that allows for urine and menstrual blood to escape. Finally, the fourth type of FGM consists of every other procedure performed on female genitalia for non-medical purposes.
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  • Fall '16
  • Edward Kanyo

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