Chapter 14 and 15_Worley_FINAL.pptx - Chapter 14 and 15Physical and Cognitive Development Professor Worley 1 What is Adolescence Period of transition

Chapter 14 and 15_Worley_FINAL.pptx - Chapter 14 and...

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Chapter 14 and 15- Physical and Cognitive Development Professor Worley 1
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What is Adolescence? Period of transition from childhood to adulthood The transition into adolescence is usually marked by puberty, which are the biological changes that enable individuals to reproduce 2
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Physical Changes In Puberty Girls go through puberty two years earlier than boys Growth spurt Girls add more fat, boys add more muscle Hands, feet, and legs grow first, followed by the torso Girls hip widen, boys get broader shoulders Usually starts around 10 for girls and 12.5 years of age for boys 3
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Physical Changes in Puberty (cont.) Gross Motor Skills Slower for girls More dramatic for boys Athletic competence is associated with peer admiration and self-esteem Detriments of performance enhancing drugs Sports and Exercise Beneficial for physical, cognitive, and social development Few adolescents engage in regular physical education 4
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Puberty Menarche-onset of menstruation Usually around 12.5 years of age, but can start as early as 8 or 9 years old Spermarche-first ejaculation Usually around 13.5 years of age 5
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Timing of Puberty Menarche has occurred earlier in industrialized nations Heredity, nutrition, exercise, and physical health are correlates of puberty Hormones in food and obesity has all been associated with earlier menarche 6
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Brain Changes in Puberty Pruning of unused synapses in the cerebral cortex Growth and myelination of neural fibers Leads to cognitive advances Neurons are more responsive to excitatory neurotransmitters Brain changes lead to a later bed time, less sleep, and increased sleep deprivation Affects school performance 7
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Psychological Impact of
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