Psychology Chapter 2 Notes.docx - Psychology Chapter 2 Notes Part 1 Nervous system network of cells that carries information to and from all parts of

Psychology Chapter 2 Notes.docx - Psychology Chapter 2...

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Psychology Chapter 2 Notes Part 1: Nervous system: network of cells that carries information to and from all parts of the body Neuroscience: branch of life sciences that focuses on the structure and function of the brain and the nerves and nervous tissue that make up the nervous system Biological psychology/ behavioral neuroscience: branch of neuroscience that focuses on the biological bases psychological processes, behavior, learning and is the primary area associated with the biological perspective of psychology. Neuron: specialized cell that sends messages throughout the nervous system Dendrites: part of neuron that receives messages from other cells Soma: cell body that holds the nucleus and keeps the cell alive and working Axon: fiber attached to soma that sends messages out to other cells Axon Terminals: fiber branched off of an axon which communicates with other nerve cells Glial Cells: multiple functions. Some, are a structure for neurons to stay, develop and work. Some, get nutrients to the neurons, clean up dead neurons, communicate with neurons and other glial cells, give insulation to neurons. (May affect some mental disorders such as major depression and schizophrenia) Myelin: fatty substances created by the glial cells called oligodendrocytes and schwann cells tracts: cables in the central nervous system Nerves: Bundles of axons in the peripheral nervous system Myelin Sheath: insulates and protects the neuron, speeds up neural message traveling down the axon Node: non myelin covered space where two meylin “bump” in an axon A neuron at rest is charged with ions Ion: charged particle Ion charge inside the cell mostly negative Ion charge outside the cell mostly positive Diffusion: Process of ions moving from areas of high concentration to areas of low Concentration Electrostatic pressure: the relative electrical charge of an ion Semipermeable: some substances can enter and exit the cell through small openings called channels Synaptic vesicles: sac-like structure in the presynaptic terminal of an axon they hold chemical in fluid that are molecules of neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters: molecules in a neuron that transmit messages Synapse/ synapse gap: the fluid filled space between the dendrites of two neurons Receptor sites: protein that only allow molecules of a certain shape to fit into them When receptor sites open they let sodium in and this activates the next cell which could be a
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