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ESP1 2019 Midterm
Section 1. MC, TF, and fill-in-the-blank questions. There are 50 points available in this
section. Blanks are worth one point and circles are worth 2.
1. For Coasian bargaining to be successful, it is necessary to have few, relatively few, a small
number of, a limited number of, etc. (I was thinking "relatively few") (2 words) parties
involved, low transaction costs, costs of transaction, (2 or 3 words), and clear and well-
enforced property rights.
2. Which of the following is false? (Circle one)
a) Biota manipulate their physical environment for the purpose of creating biologically
favorable, or even optimal conditions for themselves and future generations of the
b) N20 is a greenhouse gas, contributing to global warming.
c) Unlike CO2, the effect of N (e.g., acid rain, groundwater pollution) is more localized.
d) Acid rain increases the vulnerability of spruce and fir forests to low temperature.
3. Circle the correct answer for each of the following statements:
a) Fertilizer production is one of the major anthropogenic ways atmospheric N2 is fixed.
b) If CO2 concentration increases in the atmosphere, global temperature will rise. Rising
temperature and more CO2 will lead to increased weathering of crustal rocks as a result
of faster reaction rates and greater acidity. Enhanced weathering will use up the excess
CO2 thereby cooling the climate.
c) Energy cycles among hydrosphere, biosphere, geosphere, atmosphere, and anthrosphere.
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- Fall '08