2019 Fall Chapter 24 Metabolism Nutrition.pptx - COLLEGE PHYSICS ANATOMY PHYSIOLOGY Chapter Chapter Title Chapter 24 PowerPoint Image Slideshow

2019 Fall Chapter 24 Metabolism Nutrition.pptx - COLLEGE...

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COLLEGE PHYSICS Chapter # Chapter Title PowerPoint Image Slideshow ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY Chapter 24 METABOLISM AND NUTRITION
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Metabolism Metabolism is the sum of all energy-requiring and energy-consuming processes of the body. Many factors contribute to overall metabolism, including lean muscle mass, the amount and quality of food consumed, and the physical demands placed on
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Metabolism o Metabolism – sum of chemical reactions, catabolic and anabolic o Anabolic reactions – reactions that build molecules; requires energy (i.e. glucose to glycogen) o Catabolic reactions – reactions that break down molecules; releases energy (i.e. glycogen to glucose) o Some of the energy from catabolic reactions is used to form ATP, the energy currency of the cell. The rest of the energy is heat energy
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Structure of ATP Molecule Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the energy molecule of the cell. During catabolic reactions, ATP is created and energy is stored until needed during anabolic reactions. ATP Structure o Ribose sugar o Nitrogenous base = adenine o Three phosphate groups – the release of the terminal phosphate group lends energy for chemical reactions o ATP is used for muscle contraction, maintaining electrical potential in
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Sources of ATP During catabolic reactions, proteins are broken down into amino acids, lipids are broken down into fatty acids, and polysaccharides are broken down into monosaccharides. These building blocks are then used for the synthesis of molecules in anabolic reactions.
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Sources for ATP During digestion, the body can process (catabolize) the four major groups of macromolecules from which all organisms are made; most of these are used to make ATP via cellular respiration o Carbohydrates o Lipids o Proteins o Nucleic acids
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Carbohydrates o Building blocks of carbohydrates are monosaccharides (i.e. glucose, fructose, galactose) o Disaccharides are two monosaccharides bonded together (i.e. maltose = glucose + glucose); sucrose = glucose + fructose; lactose = glucose + galactose) o Monosaccharides and disaccharides are considered to be simple sugars o Polysaccharides are long chains of monosaccharides and are considered to be complex sugars o Glycogen is a polysaccharide that is main storage form of glucose in humans; starch is a polysaccharide that serves as storage for glucose in plants
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Lipids o Lipids are diverse and include triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids, fatty acids o Triglycerides are the main lipid in the body and consist of a glycerol backbone and three fatty acid chains o Excess carbohydrates, proteins, lipids in the diet are converted into triglycerides stored in adipose
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Proteins o Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins o Amino acids are often used by the body to build new proteins (enzymes, membrane channels and carriers, transporters) but can be used for energy
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Nucleic acids o Nucleotides are the building blocks of nucleic acids and they are used to build DNA and RNA.
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  • Fall '16
  • Dusti Sloan

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