Biology D.A. Study Guide.pdf - Biology D.A Study Guide KEY...

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Biology D.A. Study Guide KEY TERMS and VOCAB: Independent Variable: A factor intentionally changed by the experimenter Dependent Variable: A factor that MAY change as a result of the change of the independent variable Control Group: What the results are being compared to Constants: Variables that won’t change throughout the experiment Abiotic: Nonliving. Ex : Sunlight, water, soil, temperature, etc. Biotic: Living. Ex : Plants, animals, bacteria, etc. Food Chain: A LINEAR flow of energy between organisms Food Web: A COMPLEX INTERLINKING of MANY food chains Trophic Levels: The levels in a food chain Biomass: The total mass of living and once-living matter in an ecosystem Energy Pyramid: The total mass of living and once-living matter in an ecosystem Biomagnification/Bioaccumulation: The increasing concentration of toxins in higher trophic levels of the food chain ATP: Cell Energy Interdepency: Relationship among organisms Symbiotic Predation Competition Herbivory | | | | Three Types: 1. Parasitism (+, -) 2. Mutualism (+,+) 3. Commensalism (+,0) One organism captures and kills Organisms compete for resources 1. Interspecific Different 2. Intraspecific Same Organisms depend on plants for food
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Levels of Organization: 1. Atoms smallest unit of matter 2. Molecules 3. Macromolecules (Biomolecules) 4. Organelles 5. Cells smallest unit of life 6. Tissues 7. Organs 8. System 9. Organism individual 10. Population - Group of organisms which belong to the same species 11. Community - The interaction between two or more populations 12. Ecosystem - The interaction between different Biotic and Abiotic communities 13. Biome 14. Biosphere biggest unit of life All Living Things Share Common Characteristics: 1. Basic unit is cell 2. Reproduction 3. Based on DNA 4. Grow & Develop 5. Obtain & use materials for energy 6. Respond to the environment 7. Maintain a stable internal environment (homeostasis) 8. As a group, living things evolve and change over time
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Carbon Cycle Nitrogen Cycle Step 1: Fixation - Photosynthesis - Atmospheric CO2 (inorganic) gets fixed by plants into an organic compound known as glucose CO2 + H2O C6H12O6 + O2 1. Ammonification: - The conversation of N2 into ammonia by bacteria & soil - N2 + 3(H2) 2(NH3) 2. Nitrification: - Ammonia gets converted into nitrites and nitrates by nitrifying bacteria - NH3 NO2- NO3- Step 2: Movement - Food Chain - Organic compound moves from one organism to another - Food Chain - N2 is needed as protein by both plants and animals Step 3: Release - Cellular Respiration - Glucose gets burned to release energy to the atmosphere - Denitrification - Nitrites and nitrates are converted back to N2 Animal and human waste Dead organisms Disruptions - Deforestation - Carbon Sequestration (stagnation of carbon in oceans and Lithosphere) - Automobile Emission (too much carbon & not enough plants) - Too much fertilizer (algae blooms dead zones) - Human waste leeching sewer system - Burning fossil fuels - Acid rain Ecological Succession: Change to an area over a long period of time Primary Succession
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