Study Guide The Cell .pptx - Altered Cellular and Tissue Biology By Nabil Hanna MD Altered Cellular Biology Cellular adaptation to physiologic or

Study Guide The Cell .pptx - Altered Cellular and Tissue...

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Altered Cellular and Tissue Biology By Nabil Hanna, MD
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Altered Cellular Biology Cellular adaptation to physiologic or pathologic stressors Cellular injury - Ischemia/hypoxia - Chemical injury (drugs, mineral toxicity) - Physical injury ( mechanical, thermal, electrical) - Radiation injury - Biologic injury (infections) - Genetic etiology - Nutritional imbalances Cellular death - Necrosis - Apoptosis
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Atrophy Hypertrophy Hyperplasia Dysplasia Metaplasia Intracellular accumulations
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Cellular Adaptation 1. Atrophy decrease in cell size 2. Hypertrophy increase in cell size 3. Hyperplasia increase in cell number 4. Metaplasia reversible replacement of one mature cell type by another less mature cell type
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Atrophy 1. Disuse 3. Denervation 2. Loss of endocrine stimulatio n 4. Inadequate nutrition 5. ischemia
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Hypertrophy : increase in cell size Physiological : Pregnancy Muscular Exercise Pathologica l Myocardial hypertrophy Compensatory The other kidney (after nephrectomy)
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Hyperplasia An increase in cell number, resulting from increased rate of cellular division Physiologic hyperplasia - Compensatory : - callus (skin epidermal cells) - regeneration of the liver (after partial hepatectomy) - wound healing (proliferation of fibroblasts & blood vessels) - Hormonal : breast and uterine enlargement during pregnancy (estrogen) Pathologic hyperplasia - endometrial hyperplasia (excessive menstrual bleeding) - benign prostatic hypertrophy (androgen effect) - skin warts (growth factors produced by certain viruses)
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Metaplasia Reversible replacement of one cell by another cell type Bronchial metaplasia : (in smokers) - normal columnar ciliated epithelial cells, are replaced by stratified squamous epithelial cells (no mucus secretion, no cilia) - Can be reversed - Can be transformed into cancer Barrett esophagus : - normal squamous epithelial lining of the esophagus, is replaced by columnar epithelium (goblet cells of the intestines) - occurs as an adaptation to the chronic irritation of GERD
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Dysplasia (Atypical hyperplasia) - Deranged cell growth of a specific tissue that results in cells that vary in size, shape, and organization. - Epithelial tissue of the respiratory tract - Epithelial tissue of the uterine cervix - Precursor of cancer - Grading (low or high grade) e.g. Pap smear - Adaptive as it is potentially reversible
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Non-dividing cells, such as myocardial fibers, are capable of hypertrophy, but not hyperplasia A. True B. False
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Which type of cell adaptation occurs when normal columnar ciliated epithelial cells of the bronchial lining have been replaced by stratified squamous epithelial cells?
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