BB 2019 Fall C25 -The Urinary System.pptx - THE URINARY SYSTEM Chapter 25 KIDNEY FUNCTIONS Regulation of extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure

BB 2019 Fall C25 -The Urinary System.pptx - THE URINARY...

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KIDNEY FUNCTIONS Regulation of extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure Regulation of osmolarity Osmolarity maintained at 290mOsm Maintenance of ion balance Homeostatic regulation of pH ↑ acidity ECF = H + removed, HCO 3 - conserved ↑ alkalinity ECF = HCO 3 - removed and H + conserved Excretion of wastes Drugs Environmental toxins Metabolic waste (i.e. creatinine, urea, uric acid) Hormones Production of hormones Erythropoiten – hormone that stimulate erythropoiesis or production of RBCs
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FLUID AND ELECTROLYTE HOMEOSTASIS Water 50-60% total body weight Na + Involved in maintaining cell volume Involved in action potential K + Involved in action potential Ca ++ Exocytosis of neurotransmitter Skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle contraction Bone formation Blood clotting HCO 3 - Body’s major buffer preventing drastic swings in pH
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FLUID AND ELECTROLYTE BALANCE Requires integration of multiple systems including respiratory, cardiovascular, behavioral, and renal Change in one system likely affects multiple organ systems
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The Urinary System Components Kidneys (outer cortex and inner medulla), ureters, bladder, urethra Movement of water/wastes = plasma to kidney nephrons to ureter, urinary bladder, urethra
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Left Kidney
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ANATOMY OF THE URINARY SYSTEM Vascular components of kidney Blood from aorta to renal arteries to afferent arterioles to glomerulus Glomerulus – capillary network Glomerulus to efferent arteriole to peritubular capillaries to venules to renal veins to inferior vena cava
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Blood Flow in the Kidney
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ANATOMY OF THE URINARY SYSTEM Nephron Functional unit of kidney (@1 million/kidney) Cortical nephrons 80% nephrons located in cortex Juxtamedullary nephrons 20% nephrons dip into medulla (more water reabsorbed by these)
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Blood Flow in the Nephron The two capillary beds are clearly shown in this figure. The efferent arteriole is the connecting vessel between the glomerulus and the peritubular capillaries and vasa recta.
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ANATOMY OF THE URINARY SYSTEM Nephron structure Bowman’s capsule surrounds glomerulus and is “entrance” to nephron Fluid filters out of glomerulus into Bowman’s capsule Renal corpuscle = glomerulus + Bowman’s capsule Bowman’s capsule to proximal tubule Proximal tubule to loop of Henle Descending limb Ascending limb Loop of Henle to distal tubule to collecting ducts
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OVERVIEW OF KIDNEY FUNCTION Nephron function Filtration – flow of plasma-like fluid from glomerulus to Bowman’s capsule Renal corpuscle = site for filtration Reabsorption – movement of material from nephron lumen to blood via peritubular capillaries Occurs in proximal tubule, Loop of Henle, distal tubule, collecting ducts Reabsorption of water influenced by ADH Reabsorption of Na+ and secretion of K+ influenced by aldosterone Secretion – movement of material from blood to nephron Occurs along the nephron
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  • Fall '16
  • Dusti Sloan

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