AP Human Unit 4 Study Guide.pdf - AP Human Unit 4 Review...

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AP Human Unit 4 Review BOUNDARY KEY TERMS: Boundaries: Invisible lines that define the political landscape State: A politically organized territory with a permanent population, a defined territory, and a system of government. Must be recognized in order to be considered a state. Frontier: An empty territory that acts as a boundary. Some states may try to claim it. Ex: NW Pakistan Enclaves: A state or a part of a state that is surrounded by another state Ex: Lesotho and Vatican City Exclaves: A (part of a) state that’s not part of the mainland (Part of a fragmented state) Ex: Alaska and Kaliningrad Physical boundaries: Natural borders, such as deserts, mountains, and water. Buffer State: A state surrounded by larger powers to limit conflicts from those countries. Cultural boundaries : Borders following the distribution of cultural characteristics Geometric boundaries: straight lines drawn on a map. Ex: U.S. boundary with Canada is a straight line along 49 degrees latitude. Ethnic boundaries: Consequent borders placed to separate different languages or religions Language Ex: Speakers of South Slavic languages were placed together in Yugoslavia Religion Ex : Hindu Indians and Muslim Pakistani Steps to Create Boundaries Definition Remembering Name 1: Definition Boundaries are negotiated between parties (takes a lot of time) DEFINES what the boundary is for 2: Delimitation Putting agreed boundary on maps LIMITING where the boundaries are 3: Demarcation Putting a visible marker on the boundary so that it can be identified MARKING the boundary 4: Administration How the boundary will function. Heavily militarized or easily crossable? ADMINISTERING the boundary’s function Types of Boundaries Definition Example Antecedent Served as a boundary before humans Any physical boundary Subsequent Boundaries agreed on over time The boundary between U.S.A. and Canada Superimposed A boundary made by a third party British dividing India into three parts
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Relict Used to function, but is no longer used Great Wall of China Border Disputes Definition Example Definitional Conflict over the language of the border agreement Argentina and Chile Locational Conflict over where boundaries actually are (including places where the boundary is hard to mark) Egypt and Sudan Operational Conflict over the function of the boundary U.S. and Mexico Allocational Conflict over natural resources Iraq and Kuwait NATIONALITY KEY TERMS: Nationality: An ethnicity with self-determination . (See chap. 7, Key issue #2) Nation-state: A state occupied by one ethnicity that is transformed into a nationality Ex : Japan and Denmark, but there is no perfect example. Nationalism: Loyalty and devotion to a nationality (an example of a centripetal force).
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