Industrial and Organizational Psychology Study Guide.docx -...

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Industrial/Organizational Psychology Final Exam Review Outline Chapter 1 Overview: Key Points - What is Psychology - What is I/O Psychology - Basics of I/O Psychology - Key Historical Figures What is Psychology? The scientific study of human feelings, behavior and thoughts o The ABCs of Psychology A ffect B ehavior C ognition What is I/O Psychology? I/O Psychology is the application of psychological principles, theory, and research to the work setting. Industrial Psychology: Tends to focus on ways to improve, evaluate, and predict employee performance Goal: Capitalize on individual differences to predict performance Uses “correlational” methods (strong focus on measurement) Older of the two disciplines Organizational Psychology: Tends to focus on how organizations affect individuals Goal: Understand how organizational & social context of work affects people More of a “blank slate” mentality Grew out of Social Psychology - primarily uses experimental methods Industrial Psychology – What the person brings to the job E.g., what type of person steals from his/her employer? Organizational Psychology – What the job does to the person E.g., does organizational injustice increase the chances that people will steal from their employer?
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The Values of I/O Psychology Skeptical Empiricism – Nothing taken for granted, everything must be supported scientifically The Merit Principal – Outcomes should be allocated to those who deserve them most Altruism - Desire to help (organizations as well as people) Key Historical Figures: Hugo Munsterberg – The Father of Industrial Psychology Psychology of Industrial Efficiency (1913) – Addressed personnel selection and equipment design Developed selection tests for traveling salesmen, motormen with the Dallas streetcar system, and ship captains (after the sinking of the Titanic ) People are “replacement parts” that need to fit the organization’s needs Frederick W. Taylor Used “time and motion studies” to re-design jobs for maximal efficiency (focused primarily on time) Developed “Scientific Management Theory” (aka “Taylorism”) Charged with a number of negative outcomes Investigated by Interstate Commerce Commission and the U.S. House of Representatives Likely more complex than his credits gave him credit for Frank & Lillian Gilbreth Human beings are the most important element in industry Also used time and motion studies, but focused primarily on the “motion” aspect – viewed as a means to improve worker health Basis for the story/play/movie “Cheaper By The Dozen” Robert Yerkes & Walter Dill Scott Began screening Army recruits for “mental deficiencies” Army Alpha test: Army Beta test:
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By 1919, they had tested over 1.7 million men Findings garnered much interest and attention Began early research on classification, evaluation, and job analysis
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