Theeffectsofmicroaggressionsonselfefficacyintheworkplaceamonglatinos.pdf

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CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, NORTHRIDGE The Effects of Microaggressions on Self-Efficacy in the Workplace Among Latinos A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements For the degree of Master of Science in Counseling, Marriage and Family Therapy By Manuel Paul Leiva Jr. May 2012
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ii The Graduate Project of Manuel Paul Leiva Jr. is approved: _____________________________________ __________________ Stanley Charnofsky, Ed.D. Date ______________________________________ __________________ Tovah Sands, Ph.D. Date _______________________________________ ___________________ Michael Laurent, Ph.D., Chair Date California State University, Northridge
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iii DEDICATION I would like to dedicate this thesis to Dolores Carmona, Lauren Palius, and Linda Palius. You have given me the motivation and support to complete my education. I truly believe that without you very powerful and wonderful women in my life, I could have never accomplished this feat.
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iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank Dr. Laurent for his willingness to mentor me throughout this endeavor. His open ear and availability have made this possible.
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v Table of Contents Signature Page ................................................................................................................... ii Dedications ....................................................................................................................... iii Acknowledgements ........................................................................................................... iv Lists of Tables ................................................................................................................... vii Abstract ............................................................................................................................ viii Chapters: I. Chapter 1: Introduction ........................................................................................ 1 Statement of the Problem ............................................................................ 2 Purpose of the Study ................................................................................... 2 Hypothesis ................................................................................................... 3 Definition of Terms ..................................................................................... 3 Bridge to Remaining Chapters .................................................................... 5 II. Chapter 2: Literature Review ............................................................................. 6 Latinos ......................................................................................................... 6 Latino Identity and Culture ......................................................................... 6 Latin Acculturation .................................................................................... 11 Social Oppression and Discrimination ....................................................... 13 Microaggressions ...................................................................................... 19 Identifying Microaggressions ................................................................... 21 Perceived Racism and its Effects on Health and Emotions ....................... 23 Self-Efficacy ............................................................................................. 25
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vi III. Chapter 3: Methodology ................................................................................. 30 Participants ................................................................................................ 30 Instruments ................................................................................................. 30 Design and Procedure ............................................................................... 31 Maintaining Confidentiality ...................................................................... 32 IV. Chapter 4: Results ........................................................................................... 34 Data ........................................................................................................... 34 Meeting Assumptions ............................................................................... 35 Statistical Analysis .................................................................................... 35 V. Discussion ....................................................................................................... 40 Chapter 1 ................................................................................................... 40 Chapter 2 ................................................................................................... 40 Chapter 3 ................................................................................................... 41 Chapter 4 ................................................................................................... 42 Discussion and Limitations ....................................................................... 42 Recommendations for Future Research .................................................... 45 Implications for Therapists ....................................................................... 46 References ............................................................................................................. 48 Appendix A: Data Sheet ....................................................................................... 61 Appendix B: Racial and Ethnic Microaggression Scale Checklist ..................... 63 Appendix C: The General Self-Efficacy Scale ..................................................... 68
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vii List of Tables Table 1 .............................................................................................................................. 38 Table 2 .............................................................................................................................. 39
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viii ABSTRACT The Effects of Microaggressions on Self-Efficacy in the Workplace Among Latinos By Manuel Paul Leiva Jr. Master of Science in Counseling, Marriage and Family Therapy Racial microaggressions are a relatively new form of racism and have been found to have negative effects on their victims. However, little research has been done with regard to microaggressions and their effects on the Latino community and this study had an even harder time locating research regarding microaggressions and their effects on self-efficacy. With the Latino community constituting such a large portion of the American population and workforce, it was thought that research in this area was long overdue. This study analyzed the relationship between experienced racial microaggressions, their effects on the self-efficacy of Latinos, and how workplace racism might have increased the negative effects of the racial microaggressions. For this study, 102 students from a Southern California university were surveyed and a Multiple Regression statistical equation was used to analyze the data.
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