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Design and Experiment of an On-the-go Soil Mechanical Resistance System Zheng Jie, Zhang Miao and Chen Ming
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INTRODUCTION Soil compaction has been considered as one of the factors that reduce crop production. Excessive soil compaction increases runoff and erosion, reduces aeration, accelerates potential pollution, and poor development of roots will occur. The traditional method were measuring dry soil bulk density, dry bulk specific volume, void ratio, and porosity ( Johnson and Bailey.,2002 ). Therefore, indirect measurements related to soil compactness are frequently performed instead.
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INTRODUCTION Now the standardized method ( ASABE Standards, 2006a ) is using a cone penetrometer consisted of a rod with a 30°cone-shaped tip. The inserting speed is 3cm/s. The ratio of this force to the area of the cone base is called the cone index ( CI ). The CI is used for assessing the degree and variability of soil compaction. However, when we need to map the production field, the method becomes labor- demanding
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Lui designed a multi-sensor device which is used to continuously detect the soil mechanical resistance ( Lui et al.,1996 ). A vertical blade with multiple strain gages mounted on a tractor equipped with a GPS was developed. It can simultaneously measure soil mechanical resistance continuously with several depths. The correlation coefficient between the measured value of the device and the standard cone measurement was 0.95 ( Adamchuk et al.,2001 ). INTRODUCTION
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Sirjacobs designed a system that uses octagonal ring sensors as force-sensing elements. Measuring the horizontal force, vertical force and bending moment of the soil tillage tool simultaneous. The correlation coefficient between the cone index and the three measured parameters is 0.81 ( Sirjacobs et al.,2002 ). INTRODUCTION
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An Integrated Soil Physical Properties Mapping System ( ISPPMS ) was developed. It was comprised of an optical sensor, a capacitance sensor, and an instrumented blade. The system was used to determine parameters of a second‐ order polynomial model representing the change of soil mechanical resistance with depth. However, based on field evaluation, it was concluded that in most cases the second‐ order coefficient was not significant. Therefore, the assumption of a linear relationship may be appropriate ( Adamchuk and Christenson., 2005 ). INTRODUCTION
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A set of continuous testing system consisting of subsoiling shovel and strain gages had also been developed. Spatial variability and fractal characters of soil mechanical resistance were examined. The correlation coefficient between the measured value of the system and the standard cone measurement was 0.78-0.96 ( Xia et al.,2006 ). INTRODUCTION
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Zhao et al. designed a equipment with a test knife and an octagonal ring sensor to test the soil cultivation resistance.
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