Chapter 07 - Kabat-Farr and Cortina.pdf - JOBNAME Fox...

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JOBNAME: Fox & Lituchy PAGE: 1 SESS: 4 OUTPUT: Thu Feb 16 13:19:33 2012 7. Selective incivility: gender, race, and the discriminatory workplace Dana Kabat-Farr and Lilia M. Cortina Recent decades have seen extensive social research on modern or con- temporary forms of sexism and racism (e.g., Dovidio and Gaertner, 1998; Sears, 1998; Tougas et al., 1999; Swim et al., 2004). This encompasses covert biases, held even by people who value egalitarianism and avoid discriminating (intentionally) on the basis of gender or race, in a similar vein, organizational psychologists have shown increasing interest in gen- eral incivility, or subtly rude behavior that lacks a clear intent to harm (e.g., Andersson and Pearson, 1999; Cortina et al., 2001, 2002; Pearson et al., 2001). Bridging these literatures, Cortina (2008) proposed a theory of selective incivility , drawing attention to incivility as modern discrimination in organizations. Her central argument was that incivility is not always so general, sometimes constituting a veiled expression of bias that ostracizes women and people of color. While there have been efforts to eradicate discrimination from employment, selective incivility can fly under the radar and persist without challenge, representing a disguised form of dysfunction in many contexts of work. In this chapter, we begin by drawing from a range of literatures and theoretical traditions to frame Cortina’s propositions about selective inci- vility. Included here are theories on the social psychology of modern discrimination and the organizational psychology of workplace incivility. We then touch on the concepts of intersectionality and double jeop- ardy, to suggest that women of color may be most at risk for uncivil treatment. Next comes empirical evidence of selective incivility in three organizations. The chapter ends with discussion of avenues for future work, bridging theory and research, in an effort to expand investigations of this phenomenon. 107 Columns Design XML Ltd / Job: Fox-Lituchy_Gender_and_Dysfunctional_Workplace / Division: 08-chapter07 /Pg. Position: 1 / Date: 15/2
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JOBNAME: Fox & Lituchy PAGE: 2 SESS: 4 OUTPUT: Thu Feb 16 13:19:33 2012 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND Modern Discrimination The latter half of the twentieth century witnessed the passage of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which revolutionized anti-discrimination laws and practices in the United States. Overt employment discrimination based on gender and race (among other factors) is now illegal. Neverthe- less, gender and racial disparities endure in US organizations. For example, Benokraitis (1997) observed that, although only one-third of the US population was white and male in the mid-1990s, white men constituted 80 to 95 percent of all tenured professors, law firm partners, Fortune 500 CEOs, and political leaders at the national level. We have seen little progress in the twenty-first century, with women and ethnic/racial minorities still receiving lower salaries and working in lower-status jobs than white men (Greenman and Xie, 2008; Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2011). Moreover,
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