Initiating VAP bundle-2.pptx - Evidence-Based Practice Use of the Ventilator Bundle to Prevent Pneumonia Rubylocci Ola Paige Claydon Shauna Pederson

Initiating VAP bundle-2.pptx - Evidence-Based Practice Use...

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Evidence-Based Practice: Use of the Ventilator Bundle to Prevent Ventilator- Associated Pneumonia Rubylocci Ola Paige Claydon Shauna Pederson Charlotte Renfrow
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Objectives : To educate and expand our knowledge about the use of the ventilator bundle to prevent or minimize ventilator- associated pneumonia. To provide information about risk factors affecting incidences of VAP. Explore other strategies and interventions for ventilator-associated pneumonia.
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What is VAP? Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a lung infection that can develop in critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation. The American Association of Critical-Care Nurses (AACN) recommended steps for reducing the incidence of VAP; these steps are based on the best-practice guidelines for patients receiving mechanical ventilation.
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Risk factors affecting incidence of VAP The risk factors for VAP can be divided into 3 categories: host related, device related, and personnel related Host-related risk factors include preexisting conditions such as immunosuppression, chronic obstructive lung disease, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Other host-related factors include patients’ body positioning, level of consciousness, number of intubations, and medications, including sedative agents and antibiotics (Augustyn, 2017). In one study, bacterial contamination of endotracheal secretions was higher in patients in the supine position than in patients in the semi-recumbent position. Whether due to a pathophysiological process, medication, or injury, decreased level of consciousness resulting in the loss of the cough and gag reflexes contributes to the risk of aspiration and therefore increased risk for VAP (Augustyn, 2007).
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Risk factors Device-related risk factors include the endotracheal tube, the ventilator circuit, and the presence of a nasogastric or an orogastric tube. Secretions pool above the cuff of an endotracheal tube, and low cuff pressures can lead to microaspiration and/or leakage of bacteria around the cuff into the trachea (Augustyn, 2017).
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