Copy of McKay ch 18 Study Guide - AP EUROPEAN HISTORY – LOS ALTOS HIGH SCHOOL MCKAY – CHAPTER 18 STUDY GUIDE “Toward a New World View –

Copy of McKay ch 18 Study Guide - AP EUROPEAN HISTORY –...

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AP EUROPEAN HISTORY – LOS ALTOS HIGH SCHOOL MCKAY – CHAPTER 18 STUDY GUIDE “Toward a New World View – Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment” ce. 1540 - 1790 Study Guides will be scored HOLISTICALLY using the following criteria: 1) STUDENT’S ORIGINAL SCHOLARSHIP ONLY!! (that means DO YOUR OWN WORK – do not work with someone else!) 2) FINAL PRODUCT MUST REPRESENT PRIDE OF EFFORT & SCHOLARSHIP (that means DO YOUR BEST WORK – your name is on the final product; it reflects who you are) 3) Correctness, thoroughness , and thoughtfulness of responses 4) TIMELINE must be comprehensively completed 5) Mapping activities must be completed neatly using COLOR with a KEY CHAPTER SUMMARY In the course of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries the educated classes of Europe moved from a world-view that was basically religious to one that was primarily secular. The development of scientific knowledge was the key cause of this intellectual change. Until about 1500, scientific thought reflected the Aristotelian-medieval world-view, which taught that a motionless earth was at the center of a universe made up of planets and stars and ten crystal spheres. These and many other beliefs showed that science was primarily a branch of religion. Beginning with Copernicus, who taught that the earth revolved around the sun, Europeans slowly began to reject Aristotelian-medieval scientific thought. They developed a new conception of a universe based on natural laws, not with a personal God. Isaac Newton formulated the great scientific synthesis: the law of universal gravitation. This was the culminating point of the scientific revolution. The new science was more important for intellectual development than for economic activity or everyday life, for above all it promoted critical thinking. Nothing was to be accepted on faith; everything was to be submitted to the rational, scientific way of thinking. This critical examination of everything, from religion and education to war and politics, was the program of the Enlightenment and the accomplishment of the philosophes, a group of thinkers who propagandized the new world-view across Europe and the North American colonies. These writers and thinkers, among them Voltaire, Montesquieu, and Diderot, produced books and articles that influenced all classes and whose primary intent was teaching people how to think critically and objectively about all matters. The philosophes were reformers, not revolutionaries. Their “enlightened” ideas were adopted by a number of monarchs who sought to promote the advancement of knowledge and improve the lives of their subjects. Most important in this group were Frederick II of Prussia and Catherine II of Russia and the Habsburgs, Maria Theresa and Joseph II both of Austria. Despite some reforms, particularly in the area of law, Frederick and Catherine’s role in the Enlightenment was in the abstract rather than the practical. The
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