linguistics lecture 10/21 - Morphology ways to form words ● Affixation ○ Un-use-able ■ Un attaches to adjectives and produces adjectives

linguistics lecture 10/21 - Morphology ways to form words...

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Morphology : ways to form words Affixation Un-use-able Un- attaches to adjectives and produces adjectives: un-happy, -uninformed OR un- attaches to verbs and produces verbs: un-do, un-tie -able attaches to verbs and produces adjectives: understand-able, read- able Compounding Compounds are a combinations of words Hotdogs, speed-date, binge-watch, buzzword Acronyms Derived from the initials of words Fomo: fear of missing out Back-formation Created from removing what is mistakenly considered to be an affix Cran-from cranberry gives us cran-apple Abbreviations Or clippings are shortening longer words Phone = telephone Eponyms Created from proper nouns(names) achilles , freudian Blending Combining parts of words into one smog= smoke + fog Brexit - britain + exit Loanwords Pizza, blitz, czar , bagel How to identify morphemes Ex: italian [skrivo] “ I write” In isolation we can't tell what part of speech part of the word belongs to
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Unformatted text preview: Syntax-● Grammar determines how we interpret words and how we understand them ● Linear order= words often occur in a particular order in order to understand it and that it makes sense ● We can describe a languages syntax based on what the preferred order ○ Nominative = morophology marks subject ○ Accusative - marks the object ○ Dative = marks the indirect object ● Sov = 41% of worlds languages ● Svo = 35% of the worlds languages ● English has occasional word order ● VSO= 7% ● VOS=2% ● Describe internal grouping of words within a sentence ○ Lexical categories ○ Syntactic categories of phrases ● Noun phrases= test for them = replace the noun with a pronoun if you can then it is a noun phrase ○ Can you ask a who or what question in order to test if it is a noun phrase ○ A noun phrase can also needs to be determined based on the interpretation of the sentence ● Prepostional phrase = preposition + a noun phrase...
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