linguistics lecture 10/25 - ● ● When sentences that are verb phrases are usually commands Example to label all the constituents phrase structure

linguistics lecture 10/25 - ● ● When sentences that are...

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When sentences that are verb phrases are usually commands ] Example to label all the constituents: phrase structure trees The dog big the cat on the nose Sentence : i shot an elephant in my pajamas Interpretation 1 - i shot an elephant while wearing wearing my pajamas “ NOT a constituent” Interpretation 2 - i shot an elephant who was wearing my pajamas “ IS a constituent” Interpretation 1 tree Semantics Reference and sense Referents - the entities in the world to which a linguistic expression relates In other words, real world things that an utterance refers to Often conceptualized as sets of objects E.g cats Sense - the mental representation of the thing(s) the utterance could refers to You can have sense without reference
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Unformatted text preview: ■ Eg the king of the united states ● It makes sense ( understand what it means) ● does not have reference ( there is no king in the united states) ○ You can know the sense without knowing the reference ■ diamonds ● I know what diamonds are…(sense) ● But cant tell apart a real one from a fake one… (reference) ○ The referent of a word or phrase can change over time ■ Eg the president of the united states refers to someone different than it did 4 years ago, even though the sense is the same ○ The sense can also change over time ■ Eg corn used to mean any grain but now it means one specific type of grain ○ Sense helps us discuss how a single object cab be referred to many things in the world ○...
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