BB 2019 Fall Chapter 22.ppt - THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM CHAPTER 22 FUNCTIONS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Gas exchange O2 distribution CO2 elimination

BB 2019 Fall Chapter 22.ppt - THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM...

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THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM CHAPTER 22
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FUNCTIONS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Gas exchange O 2 distribution CO 2 elimination Regulation of body pH Lungs regulate CO 2 levels, altering pH Protection Respiratory epithelium traps pathogens and irritants Vocalization Air vibrates vocal cords – communication
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Major Respiratory Structures The major respiratory structures span the nasal cavity to the diaphragm.
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Upper Airway
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RESPIRATORY STRUCTURES Air passes from mouth (and nose), pharynx, larynx, trachea, right and left bronchus (primary bronchi), bronchioles, respiratory bronchioles, alveoli Divided into conducting zone and respiratory zone
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CONDUCTING ZONE Airways leading from external environment to respiratory zone Air is warmed to 37 o C and humidified to 100% humidity Goblet cells produce pathogen “trapping” mucus, ciliated epithelium lines trachea and bronchi, moves mucus to pharynx = mucociliary escalator
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Trachea The tracheal tube is formed by stacked, C-shaped pieces of hyaline cartilage. The layer visible in this cross-section of tracheal wall tissue between the hyaline cartilage and the lumen of the trachea is the mucosa, which is composed of pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium that contains goblet cells. LM × 1220. (Micrograph provided by the Regents of University of Michigan Medical School © 2012)
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RESPIRATORY ZONE Respiratory bronchioles Alveoli Two cells between air and blood: 1 alveolar cell, 1endothelial, facilitates quick gas exchange via diffusion Two types of alveolar cells Type 1 – facilitate gas exchange Type 2 – secrete surfactant Surfactant contains phospholipids that decrease cohesion, prevent alveolar collapse
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Respiratory Zone Bronchioles lead to alveolar sacs in the respiratory zone, where gas exchange occurs.
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Structures of the Respiratory Zone a) The alveolus is responsible for gas exchange. b) A micrograph shows the alveolar structures within lung tissue. LM × 178. (Micrograph provided by the Regents of University of Michigan Medical School © 2012)
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Gross Anatomy of the Lungs
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THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Physical properties of lungs Compliance – how easily lung expands or stretches with pressure Elasticity – tendency to return to initial size after distension, due to connective tissue between alveolar epithelial cells
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Parietal and Visceral Pleurae of the Lungs Visceral pleura covers lungs Parietal pleura lines thoracic cavity walls Pleural fluid fills space between pleural sacs Slippery surface allows opposing membranes to slide Holds lungs tight against thoracic wall
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Diaphragm dome-shaped sheet of skeletal muscle
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Air flows from high to low pressure Applies to gas exchange at the alveoli-blood interface and blood-cell interface Breathing is influenced by (similar to dynamics of blood flow in cardiovascular system) Length of system (remains constant) Viscocity of air (almost always constant0 Tube radius or diameter
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  • Fall '16
  • Dusti Sloan

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