HP - C20Notes - The CV System Blood Vessels and Circulation.doc - Human Physiology Notes Chapter 20 – The Cardiovascular System Blood Vessels and

HP - C20Notes - The CV System Blood Vessels and Circulation.doc

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Human Physiology Notes Chapter 20 – The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Circulation The Blood Vessels Endothelium = simple squamous epithelium that lines all vessels Vascular smooth muscle surrounds some vessels o Smooth muscle contraction and relaxation is responsible for vasoconstriction and vasodilation o Contraction is controlled by paracrines, neurotransmitters, hormones Left ventricle > (aorta) arteries > arterioles > capillaries > venules > veins > vena cavae > right atrium > _____________ > pulmonary arteries > lungs > pulmonary veins > ____________________________ > left ventricle Arteries o Thick layer of smooth muscle o Elastic and fibrous connective tissue keep the walls stiff and springy o Pressure produced by the ventricle can be stored in the artery, and released to drive blood flow Capillaries o Smallest vessels Lack smooth muscle Consist of endothelial layer that is one cell thick supported by basal lamina Most cells in the body are within 0.1 mm of the nearest capillary o Exchange of materials occurs between blood in capillaries and interstitial fluid between cells in tissues Oxygen Carbon dioxide Metabolic wastes Glucose Veins o More numerous than arteries o Contain less smooth muscle and elastic tissue than arteries o Because they are less elastic, they expand easily and hold more than half of the circulating blood o Some veins have valves that prevent backward flow of blood Blood Pressure Pulse – pressure wave transmitted through fluid of cardiovascular system (upon ventricular contraction) Blood flows through cardiovascular system because of pressure gradients (created by heart)
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  • Fall '16
  • Dusti Sloan

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