HP_C17_Study Guide and Practice Questions.doc - Human Physiology Chapter 17 – The Endocrine System Study Guide This is the material you should know

HP_C17_Study Guide and Practice Questions.doc - Human...

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Human Physiology Chapter 17 – The Endocrine System Study Guide This is the material you should know for the exam. What kind of signals can cells use to communicate? What are the general ways listed by which cells can communicate using electrical or chemical signals? What is the difference between local communication and long-distance communication? What is the difference between paracrine and autocrine signaling? How are chemical signals transmitted over long distances? What about electrical signals? Be familiar with the general categories of signal molecules. Will any cell react to a signal molecule? What is signal transduction? What must be present for a cell to react to a signal molecule? Be familiar with the order of events for a general signal transduction pathway. What is the difference between the method by which lipophilic signal molecules initiate a regulatory response and the method by which a lipophobic signal molecule initiates a regulatory response? Which receptor is more direct in its response: a chemically gated ion channel or a G-protein coupled receptor? Recognize the order of events that occurs in the cAMP and PL-C second messenger systems. What is homeostasis and what type of control system is used to maintain homeostasis? What are the three components (list and describe) of a negative feedback loop? What is the pathway for reflex control? What is a positive feedback loop? Be familiar with the general negative feedback loop. What is the function of the endocrine system? What is a hormone? What makes a chemical a hormone? Given a long list of hormones, be able to classify them as peptide hormones, steroid hormones, or amines. What is the difference between the synthesis of peptide hormones vs steroid hormones? Regarding transport and half-life, what is the difference between peptide hormones and steroid hormones?
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