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Unformatted text preview: A Comparative Study of Women Trafficked in the Migration Process Patterns, Profiles and Health Consequences of Sexual Exploitation in Five Countries (Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, Venezuela and the United States) Janice G. Raymond, PhD – International Coordinator Jean D’Cunha, PhD, Thailand Siti Ruhaini Dzuhayatin, Indonesia H. Patricia Hynes, United States Zoraida Ramirez Rodriguez, PhD, Venezuela Aida Santos, The Philippines A Comparative Study of Women Trafficked in the Migration Process Patterns, Profiles and Health Consequences of Sexual Exploitation in Five Countries (Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, Venezuela and the United States) Janice G. Raymond, PhD – International Coordinator Jean D’Cunha, PhD, Thailand Siti Ruhaini Dzuhayatin, Indonesia H. Patricia Hynes, United States Zoraida Ramirez Rodriguez, PhD, Venezuela Aida Santos, The Philippines i DEDICATION In Memory of Raquel Edralin-Tiglao Friend, Brave Spirit, Political Prisoner, Woman Warrior in the Struggle Against Violence Against Women, Insightful Counselor, Founder of the Women’s Crisis Center, Manila in the Philippines, and Co-Founder of the Coalition Against Trafficking in Women, Asia Pacific ii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We thank all the women who agreed to be interviewed for this project and gave of their time, experience, and insights. Many of these women who are survivors of trafficking and prostitution consented to be interviewed in spite of the difficulties they experienced in talking about some of these issues. We also thank those NGOs, service providers, advocates, and law enforcement and governmental personnel who spoke with us. In the process of completing this study, several individuals worked on the project who are not named in the country reports. We thank Jan Dahms who investigated the health literature relating to prostitution and trafficking, participated in the first planning meeting, and who also assembled the bibliography; and Russ Lopez who investigated the U.S. migration background information and who also formatted the figures that document the quantitative results. Maria Boniface was a superb translator and labored tirelessly through many versions of this study and at each of our planning meetings. Finally, we acknowledge with gratitude the support of the Ford Foundation who funded this project. We thank especially Reena Marcelo, our former Program Officer, who believed in this project and had the foresight and courage to support it. iii CONTENTS DEDICATION ....................................................................................................... ii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .................................................................................... iii INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................. 1 Janice G. Raymond Conceptual Framework ................................................................................... 2 Health, Migration and Trafficking .................................................................. 4 Methods and Organization .............................................................................. 5 PART I – THE NEXUS BETWEEN MIGRATION, TRAFFICKING AND SEXUAL EXPLOITATION INTERSECTIONS BETWEEN MIGRATION AND TRAFFICKING ......... 8 Janice G. Raymond Migration Trends: Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Venezuela ......... 9 Migration of Women ..................................................................................... 10 National and Regional Political and Socio-Economic Context for Women’s Migration ...................................................................................... 10 Gendered Dimensions of Migration ............................................................. 12 Migration, Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation ........................................... 13 The United States .......................................................................................... 14 INDONESIA: MIGRATION AND TRAFFICKING IN WOMEN ............. 16 Siti Ruhaini Dzuhayatin and Hartian Silawati Introduction ................................................................................................... 16 Migration Trends........................................................................................... 17 How Are Women Trafficked?........................................................................ 18 THE PHILIPPINES: MIGRATION AND TRAFFICKING IN WOMEN .. 22 Aida F. Santos with assistance from Noreen Belarmino and Raquel B. Ignacio Migration Trends........................................................................................... 22 Factors Promoting Female Migration ........................................................... 23 Regional Socio-economic Context: Impact of the Asian Crisis on Migration ................................................................................................. 24 Gendered Dimensions of Migration Policies: a Profile of Filipina Migrants 25 Conditions of Work and Sexual Exploitation ............................................... 26 Income .......................................................................................................... 26 Marriage Marketing ...................................................................................... 27 Violence against Mail-Order Brides ............................................................. 27 iv THAILAND: MIGRATION AND TRAFFICKING IN WOMEN................ 29 Jean D’Cunha Migration Trends Among Thai Women ........................................................ 29 Factors Propelling Thai Women to Migrate .................................................. 32 Conditions of Migrant Thai Women ............................................................. 34 Discriminatory Legislation, Policies and Programmes ................................. 35 VENEZUELA: MIGRATION AND TRAFFICKING IN WOMEN ............ 39 Zoraida Ramirez Rodriguez with assistance from Xiomara Linares Gonzalez Migration: Latin America and the Caribbean .............................................. 39 Migration and the Regional Economic Situation .......................................... 39 Latin American and Caribbean Migrant Woman .......................................... 39 Venezuela ...................................................................................................... 40 Venezuela’s Economic Situation and Migration ........................................... 40 Patterns of Trafficking in Clandestine Migration ......................................... 41 Clandestine Migration and Government Corruption .................................... 41 Migrant Women in Venezuela ....................................................................... 42 Gender Inequality in the Media .................................................................... 43 Information on Foreign Migration ................................................................ 44 THE UNITED STATES: MIGRATION AND TRAFFICKING IN WOMEN ....................................................................................................... 47 H. Patricia Hynes Introduction ................................................................................................... 47 Migration Trends of Women to the United States......................................... 48 Sex Trafficking into the United States .......................................................... 49 Conclusion .................................................................................................... 51 PART II - INTERVIEW FINDINGS AND DATA ANALYSIS PATTERNS, PROFILES AND CONSEQUENCES OF SEXUAL EXPLOITATION .............................................................................. 54 Janice G. Raymond General Background ..................................................................................... 54 Profile of Women Interviewed ...................................................................... 55 Recruitment, Movement and Initiation: Recruiters, Traffickers and Buyers 56 Violence Against Women .............................................................................. 60 Consequences to Women’s Health and Well-Being ...................................... 65 INDONESIA: INTERVIEW FINDINGS AND DATA ANALYSIS, A SURVEY OF TRAFFICKED WOMEN, WOMEN IN PROSTITUTION AND MAIL-ORDER BRIDES ......................................................................... 75 Siti Ruhaini Dzuhayatin and Hartian Silawati v Research Sites ............................................................................................... 75 Profile of Women Interviewed ...................................................................... 76 Recruitment, Movement and Initiation: Recruiters, Traffickers and Buyers 78 Violence Against Women .............................................................................. 82 Consequences to Women’s Health and Well-Being ...................................... 85 Recommendations ......................................................................................... 90 THE PHILIPPINES: INTERVIEW FINDINGS AND DATA ANALYSIS, A SURVEY OF TRAFFICKED WOMEN, WOMEN IN PROSTITUTION AND MAIL-ORDER BRIDES ......................................................................... 91 Aida F. Santos with assistance from Noreen Belarmino and Raquel B. Ignacio Methodology ................................................................................................. 91 Profile of Women Interviewed ...................................................................... 98 Recruitment, Movement and Initiation:Recruiters, Traffickers and Buyers 102 Violence Against Women ............................................................................ 108 Consequences to Women’s Health and Well-Being .................................... 111 Recommendations ....................................................................................... 117 THAILAND: TRAFFICKING AND PROSTITUTION FROM A GENDER AND HUMAN RIGHTS PERSPECTIVE - THE THAI EXPERIENCE .. 124 Jean D’Cunha with field assistance of Nanlada Punyaratna Introduction ................................................................................................. 124 Portrait of Nu .............................................................................................. 127 Dissecting Trafficking, Understanding Consent ......................................... 131 New Markers of Trafficking and Prostitution in Thailand .......................... 134 The Trafficking-Prostitution Experience: Cumulative Harm and Violence 140 Consequences to Women’s Health and Well-Being .................................... 144 The Sex and Sexuality of Prostitution ........................................................ 146 Adverse Impacts of Normalized Prostitution on Human Communities: Learning from the Experience of Other Countries ..................................... 148 Addressing Dilemmas in Practice ............................................................... 151 Present Actions and Future Directions........................................................ 155 VENEZUELA: INTERVIEW FINDINGS AND DATA ANALYSIS, A SURVEY OF TRAFFICKED WOMEN AND WOMEN IN PROSTITUTION ....................................................................................... 161 Zoraida Ramirez Rodriguez with assistance from Xiomara Linares Gonzalez Countries of Origin ..................................................................................... 161 Profile of Women Interviewed .................................................................... 163 Recruitment, Movement and Initiation: Recruiters, Traffickers and Buyers .................................................................................................. 164 Violence Against Women ............................................................................ 168 Consequences to Women’s Health and Well-Being .................................... 174 Opinions and Recommendations ................................................................ 184 vi THE UNITED STATES: INTERVIEW FINDINGS AND DATA ANALYSIS A SURVEY OF TRAFFICKED WOMEN AND WOMEN IN PROSTITUTION ....................................................................................... 188 H. Patricia Hynes with Field Assistance from Carol Gomez, U.S., and Maya Rusakova from the Russian Academy of Sciences Methods ...................................................................................................... 188 Profile of Women Interviewed .................................................................... 188 Recruitment, Movement and Initiation: Recruiters, Traffickers and Buyers .................................................................................................. 191 Violence Against Women ............................................................................ 196 Consequences to Women’s Health and Well-Being .................................... 202 Opinions and Recommendations ................................................................ 209 PART III - CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS POLICY AND PRACTICE RECOMMENDATIONS: THE LINKS BETWEEN SEX TRAFFICKING AND PROSTITUTION ........................ 216 Janice G. Raymond Legalization/Decriminalization of Prostitution........................................... 216 Helping Women in the Sex Industry ........................................................... 217 International and Regional Initiatives and Legislation ............................... 218 Measures to Prevent Trafficking ................................................................. 219 Measures to Protect Victims of Trafficking ................................................ 220 Measures to Prosecute Traffickers and Buyers ........................................... 221 REFERENCES ................................................................................................ 223 AUTHORS/PROJECT DIRECTORS ........................................................... 234 vii INTRODUCTION by Janice G. Raymond Trafficking in human beings – mostly women and children – has become a global business that affects almost all countries and reaps enormous profits for traffickers and their intermediaries. Human trafficking is not new. What is new is the global sophistication, complexity and consolidation of trafficking networks, and the increasing numbers of women and children who are trafficked from/to/in all parts of the globe. Researchers differ on the numbers of women trafficked. United Nations (UN) reports estimate that 4 million women have been trafficked from one country to another and within countries (Arlacchi, 2000: 7). U.S. reports cite 700,000 to two million women and children internationally trafficked each year into the sex industry and for labor (Richard, 1999). All estimates, however, are preliminary. The most prevalent forms of sex trafficking are for prostitution, sex tourism, and mail-order bride industries. Women and children are also trafficked for bonded labor and domestic work, and much of this trafficking concludes with their being sexually exploited as well. The lack of quantitative data and the enormous difficulties in producing accurate assessments of trafficking have resulted in many commentators repeating statistics from groups or governments that are often extrapolations from other crime contexts or unverified numbers. There are a variety of direct and roundabout methods that governments and researchers use to produce numbers of those trafficked. These include NGO and governmental surveys, extrapolation from other statistical indices, quantitative inferences drawn from related populations (e.g., legal and illegal immigration statistics where available), and comparisons between different data sources. Governmental and non-governmental organizations cite divergent numbers, often depending upon differing definitions of trafficking, the tendency of governments to underrepresent the problem, and extrapolations from limited case studies. Numbers are always difficult to obtain, but the revenue collected from the trafficking in women and children often reveals what the demography of trafficking cannot tell us with precision – that trafficking in women and children is a big business. The United Nations estimates that trafficking is a 5-7 billion U.S. dollar operation annually (Arlacchi, 2000:7). In contrast to penalties for drug and arms trafficking, the penalties for human trafficking are lower in many countries (Budapest Group, 1999: 10). Child sexual exploitation has grown exponentially in all countries, but especially in Asian and Latin American countries. Travel agencies, hotels, airlines, businesses, and so-called child “protectors” are often involved in sex tourism, playing a part in organized sex tours. Some child sexual abusers seem to think that they can avoid AIDS if they have sex with children but, more often, they seek out children because children are more pliable and can be made to fulfill the abusers’ demands. Millions of women worldwide are trafficked into the sex industry. Many women who are trafficked for domestic labor end up being sexually exploited as well. It has been estimated that at least 8,000 Nigerian women have been trafficked into street prostitution in Italy. Another 5,000 Albanian, Moldavian and Ukrainian women have also been trafficked into Italy where they are made to prostitute out of rooms, apartments, small hotels, massage parlors and even exclusive clubs (Vecellio, 2000, “New Slaves:” 23). In the border areas between Thailand, Burma and Cambodia, children sold to recruiters often 1 end up in brothels catering to international sex tourists. In Brazil, Venezuela and Colombia, traffickers abduct young girls from the streets to supply the brothels in the mining centers of Amazonia (Vecellio, 2000, “Children…:” 20). Conceptual Framework This study was undertaken by an interdisciplinary cross-cultural research team from Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, Venezuela and the United States who came together three times during the course of the 2 year project to discuss the scope of the study, methods, and data analysis. One of our goals has been to push the boundaries of narrow disciplinary and governmental thinking on trafficking and sexual exploitation. The conceptual framework that guides this research has its roots in a multidisciplinary approach informed by the researchers’ fields of Women’s Studies, economics, public health, law, sociology, medical ethics and the experience of the researchers in working with victims of violence against women, immigrant and refugee women, urban poor, and in an NGO with 13 years of advocacy on behalf of trafficked and prostituted women. All of the researchers are also activists and advocates in the campaign against violence against women. Within this framework the researchers began by examining the structural factors responsible for the increase in sex trafficking worldwide including: • Economic policies. Promoted by international lending organizations such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, these policies mandate “structural adjustments” in many developing regions of the world, pushing certain countries to export women for labor (the Philippines) — making them vulnerable to trafficking— or to develop economies based on tourism (Thailand), with a huge dependence on sex tourism. Under the “old” regime of structural adjustments imposed by international monetary agencies, and under the “new” regime of globalization, countries continually reduce or withdraw state support for public services like health, education and social welfare. Many of these services have been privatized and thus the cost has not only increased but has been shifted — mainly to women — who must supply these services themselves, work harder or migrate overseas for family survival under worsening economic conditions. T...
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