1410 Ch 21 RD.pptx - Chapter 21 Adulthood Cognitive Development Overview • What is intelligence • Measuring intelligence • Components of

1410 Ch 21 RD.pptx - Chapter 21 Adulthood Cognitive...

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Chapter 21 Adulthood: Cognitive Development
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Overview What is intelligence? Measuring intelligence Components of intelligence Selective gains & losses
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True or False? 1. Most developmentalists today conceive of intelligence as a single underlying ability. 2. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal research indicate that intelli- gence declines systematically during adulthood. 3. IQ scores have shown a steady upward drift over most of the last century. 4. Cohort differences affect scores on intelligence tests. 5. Intellectual abilities are multidirectional in that they can follow different trajectories with age. 6. Cognitive abilities are not affected by number of years of formal education. 7. Individual differences in intelligence are “fixed” in that they remain roughly the same over the life span. 8. Declines in fluid intelligence may be masked by increases in crystal- lized intelligence. 9. Adults believe that practical intelligence is the least useful form of intelligence during adulthood. 10. Compared with novices, experts tend to rely on more formal proce- dures in solving problems.
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1. F 6. F 2. F 7. F 3. T8. T 4. T9. F 5. T10. F
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What Is Intelligence? For most of the 20 th century, people believed there was such a thing as intelligence Some were believed to be smarter than others —creating life long impact IQ scores gathered in children are generally predictive of education, income, and longevity in later life Does this mean that IQ measures intelligence? Why? Why not?
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What is Intelligence? General intelligence (g ) (Spearman) Intelligence = one basic trait that involves all cognitive abilities, in varying amounts It cannot be measured directly but inferred from various abilities Ex: vocabulary, memory, and reasoning Current research: Trying to find one common factor (genes, early brain development, or some specific aspect of health) that underlies IQ Nothing conclusive
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Research on Age and Intelligence Psychometricians Believed that intelligence could be measured via IQ tests Disagreed about interpreting the data— especially about whether g rises or falls after age 20 U.S. Army: Tested aptitude of all literate draftees during World War I Intellectual ability peaked at about age 18, stayed at that level until the mid-20s, and then began to decline.
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Research on Age and Intelligence Longitudinal research (Bayley and colleagues) Intellectual gains through adulthood Younger cohorts often better than older cohorts Flynn Effect: “our IQ are higher than our grandparents’ “ Due to changes in environment NOT changes in
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