Jan 2017- Labour Welfare & Industrial Relations- Paper-3.pdf - PAPER-III LABOUR WELFARE INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS Signature and Name of Invigilator

Jan 2017- Labour Welfare & Industrial Relations-...

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Unformatted text preview: PAPER-III LABOUR WELFARE & INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS Signature and Name of Invigilator 1. (Signature) __________________________ OMR Sheet No. : ............................................... (To be filled by the Candidate) (Name) ____________________________ 2. (Signature) __________________________ (Name) ____________________________ J A 055 (In figures as per admission card) Roll No.________________________________ (In words) 1 7 Time : 2 1/2 hours] Number of Pages in this Booklet : 32 Instructions for the Candidates [Maximum Marks : 150 Number of Questions in this Booklet : 75 1. Write your roll number in the space provided on the top of this page. 2. This paper consists of seventy five multiple-choice type of questions. 3. At the commencement of examination, the question booklet will be given to you. In the first 5 minutes, you are requested to open the booklet and compulsorily examine it as below : (i) To have access to the Question Booklet, tear off the paper seal on the edge of this cover page. Do not accept a booklet without sticker-seal and do not accept an open booklet. (ii) Tally the number of pages and number of questions in the booklet with the information printed on the cover page. Faulty booklets due to pages/questions missing or duplicate or not in serial order or any other discrepancy should be got replaced immediately by a correct booklet from the invigilator within the period of 5 minutes. Afterwards, neither the Question Booklet will be replaced nor any extra time will be given. (iii) After this verification is over, the Test Booklet Number should be entered on the OMR Sheet and the OMR Sheet Number should be entered on this Test Booklet. (iv) The test booklet no. and OMR sheet no. should be same. In case of discrepancy in the number, the candidate should immediately report the matter to the invigilator for replacement of the test booklet / OMR Sheet. 4. Each item has four alternative responses marked (1), (2), (3) and (4). You have to darken the circle as indicated below on the correct response against each item. Example : where (3) is the correct response. 5. Your responses to the items are to be indicated in the OMR Sheet given inside the Booklet only. If you mark your response at any place other than in the circle in the OMR Sheet, it will not be evaluated. 6. Read instructions given inside carefully. 7. Rough Work is to be done in the end of this booklet. 8. If you write your Name, Roll Number, Phone Number or put any mark on any part of the OMR Sheet, except for the space allotted for the relevant entries, which may disclose your identity, or use abusive language or employ any other unfair means, such as change of response by scratching or using white fluid, you will render yourself liable to disqualification. 9. You have to return the Original OMR Sheet to the invigilators at the end of the examination compulsorily and must not carry it with you outside the Examination Hall. You are, however, allowed to carry original question booklet on conclusion of examination. 10. Use only Black Ball point pen. 11. Use of any calculator or log table etc., is prohibited. 12. There is no negative marks for incorrect answers. 13. In case of any discrepancy in the English and Hindi versions, English version will be taken as final. JA-055-17 Roll No. 1 ¯Ö¸üßõÖÖÙ£ÖµÖÖë Ûêú ×»Ö‹ ×®Ö¤ìü¿Ö 1. ‡ÃÖ ¯Öéšü Ûêú ‰ú¯Ö¸ü ×®ÖµÖŸÖ Ã£ÖÖ®Ö ¯Ö¸ü †¯Ö®ÖÖ ¸üÖê»Ö ®Ö´²Ö¸ü ×»Ö×ÜÖ‹ … 2. ‡ÃÖ ¯ÖÏ¿®Ö-¯Ö¡Ö ´Öë ¯Ö“ÖÆü¢Ö¸ü ²ÖÆãü×¾ÖÛú»¯ÖßµÖ ¯ÖÏ¿®Ö Æïü … 3. ¯Ö¸üßõÖÖ ¯ÖÏÖ¸ü´³Ö ÆüÖê®Öê ¯Ö¸ü, ¯ÖÏ¿®Ö-¯Öã×ßÖÛúÖ †Ö¯ÖÛúÖê ¤êü ¤üß •ÖÖµÖêÝÖß … ¯ÖÆü»Öê ¯ÖÖÑ“Ö ×´Ö®Ö™ü †Ö¯ÖÛúÖê ¯ÖÏ¿®Ö-¯Öã×ßÖÛúÖ ÜÖÖê»Ö®Öê ŸÖ£ÖÖ ˆÃÖÛúß ×®Ö´®Ö×»Ö×ÜÖŸÖ •ÖÖÑ“Ö Ûêú ×»Ö‹ פüµÖê •ÖÖµÖëÝÖê, וÖÃÖÛúß •ÖÖÑ“Ö †Ö¯ÖÛÖê †¾Ö¿µÖ Ûú¸ü®Öß Æîü : (i) ¯ÖÏ¿®Ö-¯Öã×ßÖÛúÖ ÜÖÖê»Ö®Öê Ûêú ×»Ö‹ ¯Öã×ßÖÛúÖ ¯Ö¸ü »ÖÝÖß ÛúÖÝÖ•Ö Ûúß ÃÖᯙ ÛúÖê ±úÖ›Ìü »Öë … ÜÖã»Öß Æãü‡Ô µÖÖ ×²Ö®ÖÖ Ã™üßÛú¸ü-ÃÖᯙ Ûúß ¯Öã×ßÖÛúÖ Ã¾ÖßÛúÖ¸ü ®Ö Ûú¸ëü … (ii) Ûú¾Ö¸ü ¯Öéšü ¯Ö¸ü ”û¯Öê ×®Ö¤ìü¿ÖÖ®ÖãÃÖÖ¸ü ¯ÖÏ¿®Ö-¯Öã×ßÖÛúÖ Ûêú ¯Öéšü ŸÖ£ÖÖ ¯ÖÏ¿®ÖÖë Ûúß ÃÖÓܵÖÖ ÛúÖê †“”ûß ŸÖ¸üÆü “ÖîÛú Ûú¸ü »Öë ×Ûú µÖê ¯Öæ¸êü Æïü … ¤üÖÂê Ö¯ÖæÞÖÔ ¯Öã×ßÖÛúÖ ×•Ö®Ö´Öë ¯Öéšü/¯ÖÏ¿®Ö Ûú´Ö ÆüÖë µÖÖ ¤ãü²ÖÖ¸üÖ †Ö ÝÖµÖê ÆüÖë µÖÖ ÃÖß׸üµÖ»Ö ´Öë ®Ö ÆüÖë †£ÖÖÔŸÖ ×ÛúÃÖß ³Öß ¯ÖÏÛúÖ¸ü Ûúß ¡Öã×™ü¯ÖæÞÖÔ ¯Öã×ßÖÛúÖ Ã¾ÖßÛúÖ¸ü ®Ö Ûú¸ëü ŸÖ£ÖÖ ˆÃÖß ÃÖ´ÖµÖ ˆÃÖê »ÖÖî™üÖÛú¸ü ˆÃÖÛêú ãÖÖ®Ö ¯Ö¸ü ¤æüÃÖ¸üß ÃÖÆüß ¯ÖÏ¿®Ö-¯Öã×ßÖÛúÖ »Öê »Öë … ‡ÃÖÛêú ×»Ö‹ †Ö¯ÖÛúÖê ¯ÖÖÑ“Ö ×´Ö®Ö™ü פüµÖê •ÖÖµÖëÝÖê … ˆÃÖÛêú ²ÖÖ¤ü ®Ö ŸÖÖê †Ö¯ÖÛúß ¯ÖÏ¿®Ö-¯Öã×ßÖÛúÖ ¾ÖÖ¯ÖÃÖ »Öß •ÖÖµÖêÝÖß †Öî¸ü ®Ö Æüß †Ö¯ÖÛúÖê †×ŸÖ׸üŒŸÖ ÃÖ´ÖµÖ ×¤üµÖÖ •ÖÖµÖêÝÖÖ … (iii) ‡ÃÖ •ÖÖÑ“Ö Ûêú ²ÖÖ¤ü ¯ÖÏ¿®Ö-¯Öã×ßÖÛúÖ ÛúÖ ®ÖÓ²Ö¸ü OMR ¯Ö¡ÖÛú ¯Ö¸ü †Ó×ÛúŸÖ Ûú¸ëü †Öî¸ü OMR ¯Ö¡ÖÛú ÛúÖ ®ÖÓ²Ö¸ü ‡ÃÖ ¯ÖÏ¿®Ö-¯Öã×ßÖÛúÖ ¯Ö¸ü †Ó×ÛúŸÖ Ûú¸ü ¤ëü … (iv) ¯ÖÏ¿®Ö ¯Öã×ßÖÛúÖ ®ÖÓ. †Öî¸ü OMR ¯Ö¡ÖÛú ®ÖÓ. ÃÖ´ÖÖ®Ö ÆüÖê®Öê “ÖÖ×Æü‹ … µÖפü ®ÖÓ²Ö¸ü ׳֮®Ö ÆüÖë, ŸÖÖê ¯Ö¸üßõÖÖ£Öá ¯ÖÏ¿®Ö-¯Öã×ßÖÛúÖ / OMR ¯Ö¡ÖÛú ²Ö¤ü»Ö®Öê Ûêú ×»Ö‹ ×®Ö¸üßõÖÛú ÛúÖê ŸÖã¸ÓüŸÖ ÃÖæ×“ÖŸÖ Ûú¸ëü … 4. ¯ÖÏŸµÖêÛú ¯ÖÏ¿®Ö Ûêú ×»Ö‹ “ÖÖ¸ü ˆ¢Ö¸ü ×¾ÖÛú»¯Ö (1), (2), (3) ŸÖ£ÖÖ (4) פüµÖê ÝÖµÖê Æïü … †Ö¯ÖÛúÖê ÃÖÆüß ˆ¢Ö¸ü Ûêú ¾Öé¢Ö ÛúÖê ¯Öê®Ö ÃÖê ³Ö¸üÛú¸ü ÛúÖ»ÖÖ Ûú¸ü®ÖÖ Æîü •ÖîÃÖÖ ×Ûú ®Öß“Öê פüÜÖÖµÖÖ ÝÖµÖÖ Æîü : ˆ¤üÖÆü¸üÞÖ : •Ö²Ö×Ûúú(3) ÃÖÆüß ˆ¢Ö¸ü Æîü … 5. ¯ÖÏ¿®ÖÖë Ûêú ˆ¢Ö¸ü Ûêú¾Ö»Ö ¯ÖÏ¿®Ö ¯Öã×ßÖÛúÖ Ûêú †®¤ü¸ü פüµÖê ÝÖµÖê OMR ¯Ö¡ÖÛú ¯Ö¸ü Æüß †Ó×ÛúŸÖ Ûú¸ü®Öê Æïü … µÖפü †Ö¯Ö OMR ¯Ö¡ÖÛú ¯Ö¸ü פüµÖê ÝÖµÖê ¾Öé¢Ö Ûêú †»ÖÖ¾ÖÖ ×ÛúÃÖß †®µÖ ãÖÖ®Ö ¯Ö¸ü ˆ¢Ö¸ü דÖÅ®ÖÖÓ×ÛúŸÖ Ûú¸üŸÖê Æïü, ŸÖÖê ˆÃÖÛúÖ ´Ö滵ÖÖÓÛú®Ö ®ÖÆüà ÆüÖÝê ÖÖ … 6. †®¤ü¸ü פüµÖê ÝÖµÖê ×®Ö¤ìü¿ÖÖë ÛúÖê ¬µÖÖ®Ö¯Öæ¾ÖÔÛú ¯ÖœÌëü … 7. Ûú““ÖÖ ÛúÖ´Ö (Rough Work) ‡ÃÖ ¯Öã×ßÖÛúÖ Ûêú †×®ŸÖ´Ö ¯Öéšü ¯Ö¸ü Ûú¸ëü … 8. µÖפü †Ö¯Ö OMR ¯Ö¡ÖÛú ¯Ö¸ü ×®ÖµÖŸÖ Ã£ÖÖ®Ö Ûêú †»ÖÖ¾ÖÖ †¯Ö®ÖÖ ®ÖÖ´Ö, ¸üÖê»Ö ®Ö´²Ö¸ü, ±úÖê®Ö ®Ö´²Ö¸ü µÖÖ ÛúÖê‡Ô ³Öß ‹êÃÖÖ ×“ÖÅ®Ö ×•ÖÃÖÃÖê †Ö¯ÖÛúß ¯ÖÆü“ÖÖ®Ö ÆüÖê ÃÖÛêú, †Ó×ÛúŸÖ Ûú¸üŸÖê Æïü †£Ö¾ÖÖ †³Ö¦ü ³ÖÖÂÖÖ ÛúÖ ¯ÖϵÖÖêÝÖ Ûú¸üŸÖê Æïü, µÖÖ ÛúÖê‡Ô †®µÖ †®Öã×“ÖŸÖ ÃÖÖ¬Ö®Ö ÛúÖ ¯ÖϵÖÖêÝÖ Ûú¸üŸÖê Æïü, •ÖîÃÖê ×Ûú †Ó×ÛúŸÖ ×ÛúµÖê ÝÖµÖê ˆ¢Ö¸ü ÛúÖê ×´Ö™üÖ®ÖÖ µÖÖ ÃÖ±êú¤ü ÃÖÖÆüß ÃÖê ²Ö¤ü»Ö®ÖÖ ŸÖÖê ¯Ö¸üßõÖÖ Ûêú ×»ÖµÖê †µÖÖêÝµÖ ‘ÖÖê×ÂÖŸÖ ×ÛúµÖê •ÖÖ ÃÖÛúŸÖê Æïü … 9. †Ö¯ÖÛúÖê ¯Ö¸üßõÖÖ ÃÖ´ÖÖ¯ŸÖ ÆüÖ®ê Öê ¯Ö¸ü ´Öæ»Ö OMR ¯Ö¡ÖÛú ×®Ö¸üßõÖÛú ´ÖÆüÖ¤ê üµÖ ÛúÖê »ÖÖî™üÖ®ÖÖ †Ö¾Ö¿µÖÛú Æîü †Öî¸ü ¯Ö¸üßõÖÖ ÃÖ´ÖÖׯŸÖ Ûêú ²ÖÖ¤ü ˆÃÖê †¯Ö®Öê ÃÖÖ£Ö ¯Ö¸üßõÖÖ ³Ö¾Ö®Ö ÃÖê ²ÖÖÆü¸ü ®Ö »ÖêÛú¸ü •ÖÖµÖë … ÆüÖ»ÖÖÓ×Ûú †Ö¯Ö ¯Ö¸üßõÖÖ ÃÖ´ÖÖׯŸÖ ¯Ö¸ü ´Öæ»Ö ¯ÖÏ¿®Ö-¯Öã×ßÖÛúÖ †¯Ö®Öê ÃÖÖ£Ö »Öê •ÖÖ ÃÖÛúŸÖê Æïü … 10. ÛúÖ»Öê ²ÖÖ»Ö ¯¾ÖÖ‡Õ™ü ¯Öê®Ö ÛúÖ Æüß ‡ÃŸÖê´ÖÖ»Ö Ûú¸ëü … 11. ×ÛúÃÖß ³Öß ¯ÖÏÛúÖ¸ü ÛúÖ ÃÖÓÝÖÞÖÛú (Ûîú»ÖÛãú»Öê™ü¸ü) µÖÖ »ÖÖÝÖ ™êü²Ö»Ö †Öפü ÛúÖ ¯ÖϵÖÖêÝÖ ¾ÖÙ•ÖŸÖ Æîü … 12. ÝÖ»ÖŸÖ ˆ¢Ö¸üÖë Ûêú ×»Ö‹ ÛúÖê‡Ô ®ÖÛúÖ¸üÖŸ´ÖÛú †ÓÛú ®ÖÆüà Æïü … 13. µÖפü †ÓÝÖÏê•Öß µÖÖ ØÆü¤üß ×¾Ö¾Ö¸üÞÖ ´Öë ÛúÖê‡Ô ×¾ÖÃÖÓÝÖ×ŸÖ ÆüÖê, ŸÖÖê †ÓÝÖÏê•Öß ×¾Ö¾Ö¸üÞÖ †Ó×ŸÖ´Ö ´ÖÖ®ÖÖ •ÖÖ‹ÝÖÖ … P.T.O. LABOUR WELFARE & INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS PAPER – III Note : This paper contains seventy five (75) objective type questions of two (2) marks each. All questions are compulsory. Read the passage and answer the questions raised below : (For Questions Nos. 1 – 7) Passage The past decade has upset many preconceptions about development and this, more than anything else, makes it difficult to be overly definite about what the next decade has in store. But there are a few things that one can assert with some confidence. First, education, health and productive employment are crucial both for growth and for equity. We have tended to assume that all of these are the consequences of rapid economic growth and that only growth can generate the resources required for these purposes. But, increasingly, it appears that these are better seen as the causes rather than as consequences of development. Virtually every case of successful development involves a prior improvement in literacy, technical skills, health status and access to productive work. Second, technological competence is the most important resource endowment and it explains a far large proportion of growth in output and trade than more conventional factors like natural resources or capital accumulation. The competence required is not just in research. In fact technological dynamism in the factory and the farm is more important than the presence of large research establishment. Third, the environmental imperative can no longer be ignored. Today, as an international issue, it is second only to disarmament. Nationally, the developmental consequences of environmental neglect are increasingly obvious. In the Indian context there are atleast two further factors which reinforce the above propositions. The first is population growth. Given the pace of expansion of the population and the work force, human resource development acquires an added urgency. Population growth is also one, but not necessarily the most important factor, which underlines environmental stress in rural and urban areas. The second factor is that as a large country we cannot carve out an independent position in the global system without building up a substantial capacity for self-reliant growth. The acquisition of technical competence is crucial for this purpose. Until now we have tended to treat human resource development, technology and environment as subsidiary to the main task of planning. The thrust has been on-quantitative expansion of infrastructure and production with a focus on targets like tonnes of steel, kWh of electricity etc, capacity targets like road length, rail kilometres; and coverage targets like number of schools and students, number of villages electrified etc, catching up with known technologies-fuller use of natural resources – maximum mobilization of financial resources. 1. What seems to be the purpose of the author in writing this passage ? (1) To appreciate the steps taken by our Government in the past and doubts about the future. (2) To show how the policy makers have failed. (3) A review of world affairs with special emphasis on developed countries. (4) To prove how his predictions have turned out to be correct. Paper-III 2 JA-055-17 ÁÖ´Ö Ûú»µÖÖÞÖ †Öî¸ü †ÖîªÖê×ÝÖÛú ÃÖÓ²ÖÓ¬Ö ¯ÖÏ¿®Ö¯Ö¡Ö – III ×®Ö¤ìü¿Ö : ‡ÃÖ ¯ÖÏ¿®Ö¯Ö¡Ö ´Öë ¯Ö“ÖÆü¢Ö¸ü (75) ²ÖÆãü-×¾ÖÛú»¯ÖßµÖ ¯ÖÏ¿®Ö Æïü … ¯ÖÏŸµÖêÛú ¯ÖÏ¿®Ö Ûêú ¤üÖê (2) †ÓÛú Æïü … ÃÖ³Öß ¯ÖÏ¿®Ö †×®Ö¾ÖÖµÖÔ Æïü … ×®Ö´®Ö×»Ö×ÜÖŸÖ ÝÖªÖÓ¿Ö ÛúÖê ¯ÖלÌü‹ †Öî¸ü ‡ÃÖ´Öë פü‹ ÝÖ‹ ¯ÖÏ¿®ÖÖë Ûêú ˆ¢Ö¸ü ¤üßו֋ : (¯ÖÏ¿®Ö ÃÖÓܵÖÖ 1 ÃÖê 7 ŸÖÛú) ÝÖªÖÓ¿Ö ×¾ÖÝÖŸÖ ¤ü¿ÖÛú ®Öê ×¾ÖÛúÖÃÖ Ûêú ÃÖÓ²ÖÓ¬Ö ´Öë ²ÖÆãüŸÖ-ÃÖß ¯Öæ¾ÖÔ¬ÖÖ¸üÞÖÖ†Öë ÛúÖê ÜÖÓ×›üŸÖ ×ÛúµÖÖ Æîü †Öî¸ü µÖÆü ×ÛúÃÖß ³Öß †®µÖ Ûúß ŸÖã»Ö®ÖÖ ´Öë ‡ÃÖ ¬ÖÖ¸üÞÖÖ ÛúÖê †×¬ÖÛú Ûúךü®Ö ²Ö®ÖÖŸÖß Æîü ×Ûú ÃÖ´ÖÝÖÏ ºþ¯Ö ÃÖê †ÝÖ»Öê ¤ü¿ÖÛú ´Öë ïÖ™ü ŸÖÖî¸ü ¯Ö¸ü ŒµÖÖ ×ãÖ×ŸÖ ÆüÖêÝÖß … »Öê×Ûú®Ö Ûãú”û ×¾ÖÂÖµÖ ‹êÃÖê Æïü ו֮ÖÛêú ²ÖÖ¸êü ´Öë ÛúÖê‡Ô ³Öß ¾µÖ׌ŸÖ Ûãú”û ×¾Ö¿¾ÖÖÃÖ Ûêú ÃÖÖ£Ö ÛúÆü ÃÖÛúŸÖÖ Æîü … ¯ÖÏ£Ö´Ö, ׿ÖõÖÖ, þÖÖãµÖ †Öî¸ü ˆ¯ÖµÖÖêÝÖß ¸üÖê•ÖÌÝÖÖ¸ü ¾Öéרü ‹¾ÖÓ ×®Ö¯ÖõÖŸÖÖ ¤üÖê®ÖÖë Ûêú ×»Ö‹ ´ÖÆü¢¾Ö¯ÖæÞÖÔ Æïü … Æü´Ö µÖÆü ´ÖÖ®ÖŸÖê Æïü ×Ûú µÖê ÃÖ³Öß Ÿ¾Ö׸üŸÖ †ÖÙ£ÖÛú ×¾ÖÛúÖÃÖ Ûêú ¯Ö׸üÞÖÖ´Ö Æïü †Öî¸ü ×ÃÖ±Ôú ×¾ÖÛúÖÃÖ Æüß ‡®Ö ˆ§êü¿µÖÖë Ûêú ×»Ö‹ †Ö¾Ö¿µÖÛú ÃÖÓÃÖÖ¬Ö®ÖÖë ÛúÖ ÃÖé•Ö®Ö Ûú¸ü ÃÖÛúŸÖÖ Æîü … »Öê×Ûú®Ö, ²ÖœÌüŸÖê Æãü‹ ÛÎú´Ö ´Öë, µÖÆü ¯ÖÏŸÖßŸÖ ÆüÖŸê ÖÖ Æîü ×Ûú ‡®Æëü ×¾ÖÛúÖÃÖ Ûêú ¯Ö׸üÞÖÖ´ÖÖë Ûúß ŸÖã»Ö®ÖÖ ´Öë ÛúÖ¸üÞÖÖë Ûêú ºþ¯Ö ´Öë †×¬ÖÛú ²ÖêÆüŸÖ¸ü ´ÖÖ®ÖÖ ÝÖµÖÖ Æîü … ¾ÖßÖãŸÖ: ÃÖ±ú»Ö ×¾ÖÛúÖÃÖ Ûêú ¯ÖÏŸµÖêÛú ´ÖÖ´Ö»Öê ´Öë, ÃÖÖõÖ¸üŸÖÖ, ŸÖÛú®ÖßÛúß ÛúÖî¿Ö»Ö, þÖÖãµÖ ×ãÖ×ŸÖ ´Öë ¯Öæ¾ÖÔ ÃÖã¬ÖÖ¸ü †Öî¸ü ˆŸ¯ÖÖ¤üÛú ÛúÖµÖÔ ŸÖÛú ¯ÖÆãÑü“Ö ¿ÖÖ×´Ö»Ö Æîü … ׫üŸÖßµÖ, ¯ÖÏÖîªÖê×ÝÖÛúßµÖ õÖ´ÖŸÖÖ ÃÖ¾ÖÖÔ׬ÖÛú ´ÖÆü¢¾Ö¯ÖæÞÖÔ ÃÖÓÃÖÖ¬Ö®Ö ×®Ö×¬Ö Æîü †Öî¸ü µÖÆü †×¬ÖÛú ¯Ö¸ü´¯Ö¸üÖÝÖŸÖ ‘Ö™üÛúÖë •ÖîÃÖê ¯ÖÏÖÛéúןÖÛú ÃÖÓÃÖÖ¬Ö®ÖÖë †£Ö¾ÖÖ ¯ÖæÑ•Öß ÃÖÓ“ÖµÖ Ûúß ŸÖã»Ö®ÖÖ ´Öë ˆŸ¯ÖÖ¤ü®Ö †Öî¸ü ¾µÖÖ¯ÖÖ¸ü ´Öë ¾Öéרü Ûêú †×¬ÖÛú ¾µÖÖ¯ÖÛú ÃÖ´ÖÖ®Öã¯ÖÖŸÖ ÛúÖê ïÖ™ü Ûú¸üŸÖß Æîü … †Ö¾Ö¿µÖÛú ¤üõÖŸÖÖ ×ÃÖ±Ôú †®ÖãÃÖÓ¬ÖÖ®Ö ´Öë Æüß ®ÖÆüà Æîü … ¾ÖÖÃŸÖ¾Ö ´Öë, ÛúÖ¸üÜÖÖ®Öê †Öî¸ü ÜÖêŸÖ ´Öë ¯ÖÏÖîªÖêê×ÝÖÛúßµÖ ÝÖן־ÖÖ¤ü Ûúß ˆ¯Ö×ãÖ×ŸÖ ²Ö›Ìêü †®ÖãÃÖÓ¬ÖÖ®Ö ¯ÖÏןÖšüÖ®Ö Ûúß ŸÖã»Ö®ÖÖ ´Öë †×¬ÖÛú ´ÖÆü¢¾Ö¯ÖæÞÖÔ Æîü … ŸÖéŸÖßµÖ, ¯ÖµÖÖÔ¾Ö¸üÞÖßµÖ †×¬Ö¤êü¿Ö Ûúß ³Öß †×¬ÖÛú ÃÖ´ÖµÖ ŸÖÛú ˆ¯ÖêõÖÖ ®ÖÆüà Ûúß •ÖÖ ÃÖÛúŸÖß … †Ö•Ö, ‹Ûú †ÓŸÖ¸üÖÔ™ÒüßµÖ ´Öã§üê Ûêú ºþ¯Ö ´Öë, µÖÆü ×®Ö¸üáÖßÛú¸üÞÖ Ûêú ²ÖÖ¤ü ¤æüÃÖ¸üÖ Æîü … ¸üÖ™ÒüßµÖ ŸÖÖî¸ü ¯Ö¸ü, ¯ÖµÖÖÔ¾Ö¸üÞÖßµÖ ˆ¯ÖêõÖÖ Ûêú ×¾ÖÛúÖÃÖÖŸ´ÖÛú ¯Ö׸üÞÖÖ´Ö ÃÖãïÖ™ü Æïü … ³ÖÖ¸üŸÖßµÖ ÃÖÓ¤ü³ÖÔ ´Öë, µÖÆüÖÑ Ûú´Ö ÃÖê Ûú´Ö ¤üÖê †ÝÖ»Öê ‘Ö™üÛú Æïü •ÖÖê ˆ¯ÖµÖãÔŒŸÖ ¯ÖÏßÖÖ¾ÖÖë ÛúÖê ÃÖã¥üœÌü ²Ö®ÖÖŸÖê Æïü … ‡®Ö´Öë ¯ÖÏ£Ö´Ö •Ö®ÖÃÖÓܵÖÖ ¾Öéרü Æîü … •Ö®ÖÃÖÓܵÖÖ Ûêú ×¾ÖßÖÖ¸ü †Öî¸ü ÁÖ´Ö ¿Ö׌ŸÖ ÛúÖê ÝÖ×ŸÖ ¤êüŸÖê Æãü‹, ´ÖÖ®Ö¾Ö ÃÖÓÃÖÖ¬Ö®Ö ×¾ÖÛúÖÃÖ ‹•Öê×®ÃÖµÖÖë ®Öê †ŸµÖÖ¾Ö¿µÖÛúŸÖÖ ÛúÖê ²ÖœÌüÖµÖÖ Æîü … •Ö®ÖÃÖÓܵÖÖ ¾Öéרü ³Öß ‹Ûú Æîü, ¯Ö¸ü®ŸÖã †Ö¾Ö¿µÖÛúºþ¯Ö ÃÖê µÖÆü ÃÖ¾ÖÖÔ׬ÖÛú ´ÖÆü¢¾Ö¯ÖæÞÖÔ ‘Ö™üÛú ®ÖÆüà Æîü, •ÖÖê ÝÖÏÖ´ÖßÞÖ †Öî¸ü ¿ÖÆü¸üß õÖê¡ÖÖë ´Öë ¯ÖµÖÖÔ¾Ö¸üÞÖßµÖ ¤ü²ÖÖ¾Ö ¯Ö¸ü ²Ö»Ö ¤êüŸÖÖ Æîü … ׫üŸÖßµÖ ‘Ö™üÛú ´Öë ‹Ûú ×¾Ö¿ÖÖ»Ö ¤êü¿Ö ÆüÖê®Öê Ûêú ®ÖÖŸÖê, Æü´Ö þֆ֟´ÖÖ¾Ö»Ö´²Öß ¾Öéרü Ûúß ´Ö•Ö̲ÖæŸÖ õÖ´ÖŸÖÖ ÛúÖ ×®Ö´ÖÖÔÞÖ ×Ûú‹ ײ֮ÖÖ ¾Öî׿¾ÖÛú ¾µÖ¾ÖãÖÖ ´Öë ‹Ûú þ֟ÖÓ¡Ö ×ãÖ×ŸÖ ®ÖÆüà ²Ö®ÖÖ ÃÖÛúŸÖê … ‡ÃÖ ˆ§êü¿µÖ ÛúÖê ¯Öæ¸üÖ Ûú¸ü®Öê Ûêú ×»Ö‹ ŸÖÛú®ÖßÛúß õÖ´ÖŸÖÖ ÆüÖ×ÃÖ»Ö Ûú¸ü®ÖÖ ´ÖÆü¢¾Ö¯ÖæÞÖÔ Æîü … †²Ö ŸÖÛú Æü´Ö ´ÖÖ®Ö¾Ö ÃÖÓÃÖÖ¬Ö®Ö ×¾ÖÛúÖÃÖ ¯ÖÏÖªî Öê×ÝÖÛúß †Öî¸ü ¯ÖµÖÖÔ¾Ö¸üÞÖ ÛúÖ †ÖµÖÖê•Ö®ÖÖ Ûêú ¯ÖÏ´ÖãÜÖ ÛúÖµÖÔ Ûêú ×»Ö‹ ÝÖÖîÞÖ ŸÖÖî¸ü ¯Ö¸ü ˆ¯ÖµÖÖêÝÖ Ûú¸ü “ÖãÛêú Æïü … Æü´ÖÖ¸üÖ ¬µÖÖ®Ö ´ÖÖ¡ÖÖŸ´ÖÛú †¾ÖãÖÖ¯Ö®ÖÖ Ûêú ×¾ÖßÖÖ¸ü †Öî¸ü Æü•ÖÌÖ¸üÖë ™ü®Ö ‡Ã¯ÖÖŸÖ, kWh ³ÖÖ¸üß ×¾ÖªãŸÖ õÖ´ÖŸÖÖ Ûêú ˆŸ¯ÖÖ¤ü®Ö, ÃÖ›ÌüÛú ×¾ÖßÖÖ¸ü, ¸êü»Ö ×Ûú»ÖÖê´Öß™ü¸ü •ÖîÃÖê »ÖõµÖÖë †Öî¸ü ×¾ÖªÖ»ÖµÖ †Öî¸ü ”ûÖ¡ÖÖë Ûúß ÃÖÓܵÖÖ, ×¾ÖªãŸÖßÛéúŸÖ ÝÖÏÖ´ÖÖë Ûúß ÃÖÓܵÖÖ †Öפü •ÖîÃÖê »ÖõµÖÖë ‹¾ÖÓ –ÖÖŸÖ ¯ÖÏÖîªÖê×ÝÖ×ÛúµÖÖë ÛúÖê †¯Ö®ÖÖŸÖê Æãü‹ ¯ÖÏÖÛéúןÖÛú ÃÖÓÃÖÖ¬Ö®ÖÖë Ûêú ¯ÖæÞÖÔ ˆ¯ÖµÖÖêÝÖ †Öî¸ü ×¾Ö¢ÖßµÖ ÃÖÓÃÖÖ¬Ö®ÖÖë Ûêú †×¬ÖÛúŸÖ´Ö ÃÖÓÝÖÏÆüÞÖ ¯Ö¸ü ¸üÆüÖ Æîü … 1. ‡ÃÖ ÝÖªÖÓ¿Ö Ûêú »ÖêÜÖ®Ö ´Öë »ÖêÜÖÛú ÛúÖ ŒµÖÖ ˆ§êü¿µÖ ‡Ó×ÝÖŸÖ ÆüÖêŸÖÖ Æîü ? (1) ×¾ÖÝÖŸÖ ÃÖ´ÖµÖ †Öî¸ü ³Ö×¾Ö嵅 Ûúß †×®Ö׿“ÖŸÖŸÖÖ†Öë Ûêú ×»Ö‹ Æü´ÖÖ¸üß ÃÖ¸üÛúÖ¸ü «üÖ¸üÖ ˆšüÖ‹ ÝÖ‹ Ûú¤ü´ÖÖë Ûúß ÃÖ¸üÖÆü®ÖÖ (2) ®Öß×ŸÖ ×®Ö´ÖÖÔŸÖÖ ÛîúÃÖê †ÃÖ±ú»Ö ÆüÖê “ÖãÛêú Æïü ‡ÃÖê ¤ü¿ÖÖÔ®ÖÖ (3) ×¾ÖÛú×ÃÖŸÖ ¤êü¿ÖÖë ¯Ö¸ü ×¾Ö¿ÖêÂÖ ²Ö»Ö ¤êüŸÖê Æãü‹ ¾Öî׿¾ÖÛú ´ÖÖ´Ö»ÖÖë Ûúß ‹Ûú ÃÖ´ÖßõÖÖ (4) µÖÆü ×ÃÖ¨ü Ûú¸ü®ÖÖ ×Ûú ÛîúÃÖê ˆÃÖÛêú ¯Öæ¾ÖÖÔ®Öã´ÖÖ®Ö ÃÖÆüß ÃÖÖ×²ÖŸÖ Æãü‹ Æïü … JA-055-17 3 Paper-III 2. According to the author, at the national level, with passage of time, the effects of which of the following are being felt ? (1) Lack of attention and action for protecting environmental wealth. (2) Reduction in growth rate of population. (3) Progressive degradation of technological competence in urban areas. (4) Emphasis on slow rate of disarmament as compared to other nations. 3. What seems to be the approach of the author regarding present status of research ? A. He desires that more research establishments should come up. B. Application of new technologies in factories and field is more vital than setting up of research laboratories. (1) Only A (2) Only B (3) Neither A nor B (4) Both A and B 4. According to the author, which of the following is a less important factor resulting in environmental stress in rural and urban areas ? (1) Rapid economic growth (2) Availability of productive employment (3) Rate of growth of population (4) Continued environmental neglect 5. According to the passage, we have so far placed more emphasis on which of the following ? (1) More use of available natural resources (2) Increased number of basic facilities and meeting number targets (3) Maximum utilisation of available finances (4) Following known technologies 6. Which of the following statements is not true in the context of the passage ? (1) We have to now emphasize on aspects of human resource development. (2) Technological competence has to be given due priority over more conventional factors. (3) We cannot afford to ignore the importance of environment. (4) We will have bright future by only catching up with known technologies. 7. According to the passage, which is not viewed as cause of development ? (1) Betterment in health services (2) Increase in underdevelopment (3) Enhancement in technical skills (4) Improvement in literacy 8. In his book “The Time Bind : When Home becomes work and work becomes Home”, Arlie Hochschild highlights the danger of total integration between work and home leading to either ‘workholics’ or ‘work busters’. The first neglecting the family and realizing it too late. The second ‘soldering’ on work compromising with efficiency. From the above observation, which of the following inferences can be drawn ? (a) Home becoming work and work becoming home is an ideal condition. (b) Home becoming work and work becoming home may create ‘workholics’ who are good employees and bad home-makers resulting into family break-down. (c) Employee ‘soldering’ means taking the job easy leading to inadequate performance. (d) The passage advocates for work-life balance. (1) (b), (c), (d) (2) (a), (b), (c) (3) (a), (c), (d) (4) (a), (b), (c), (d) Paper-III 4 JA-055-17 2. »ÖêÜÖÛú Ûêú †®ÖãÃÖÖ¸ü, ¸üÖ™ÒüßµÖ ÃŸÖ¸ü ¯Ö¸ü, ÃÖ´ÖµÖ ²Öߟ֮Öê Ûêú ÃÖÖ£Ö-ÃÖÖ£Ö ×®Ö´®Ö×»Ö×ÜÖŸÖ ´Öë ÃÖê ×ÛúÃÖÛúÖ ¯ÖϳÖÖ¾Ö ´ÖÆüÃÖæÃÖ ×ÛúµÖÖ •ÖÖ ¸üÆüÖ Æîü ? (1) ¯ÖµÖÖÔ¾Ö¸üÞÖßµÖ ÃÖÓ¯Ö¤üÖ Ûêú ÃÖÓ¸üõÖÞÖ Ûêú ×»Ö‹ ¬µÖÖ®Ö ×¤ü‹ •ÖÖ®Öê †Öî¸ü Ûú¤ü´Ö ˆšüÖ‹ •ÖÖ®Öê Ûúß Ûú´Öß (2) •Ö®ÖÃÖÓܵÖÖ Ûêú ¾Öéרü ¤ü¸ü ´Öë Ûú´Öß (3) ¿ÖÆü¸üß õÖê¡ÖÖë ´Öë ¯ÖÏÖîªÖê×ÝÖÛúßµÖ õÖ´ÖŸÖÖ ÛúÖ ¯ÖÏÝÖןֿÖᯙ †¯ÖÛúÂÖÔ (4) †®µÖ ¸üÖ™ÒüÖë Ûúß ŸÖã»Ö®ÖÖ ´Öë ×®Ö¸üáÖßÛú¸üÞÖ Ûúß ¬Öß´Öß ¤ü¸ü ¯Ö¸ü ²Ö»Ö 3. †®ÖãÃÖÓ¬ÖÖ®Ö Ûúß ¾ÖŸÖÔ´ÖÖ®Ö ×ãÖ×ŸÖ Ûêú ÃÖÓ²ÖÓ¬Ö ´Öë »ÖêÜÖÛú ×®Ö´®Ö×»Ö×ÜÖŸÖ ´Öë ÃÖê ×ÛúÃÖÛúÖê þÖßÛéú×ŸÖ ¤êüŸÖÖ ¯ÖÏŸÖßŸÖ ÆüÖêŸÖÖ Æîü ? A. ˆÃÖÛúß †×³Ö»ÖÖÂÖÖ Æîü ×Ûú †Öî¸ü †×¬ÖÛú †®ÖãÃÖÓ¬ÖÖ®Ö ÃÖÓãÖÖ®Ö ÆüÖê®Öê “ÖÖ×Æü‹ … B. †®ÖãÃÖÓ¬ÖÖ®Ö ¯ÖϵÖÖêÝÖ¿ÖÖ»ÖÖ†Öë Ûúß Ã£ÖÖ¯Ö®ÖÖ Ûúß ŸÖã»Ö®ÖÖ ´Öë ±îúŒ™ü׸üµÖÖë †Öî¸ü ÜÖêŸÖÖë ´Öë ®Ö¾Öß®Ö ¯ÖÏÖîªÖê×ÝÖ×ÛúµÖÖë ÛúÖ ˆ¯ÖµÖÖêÝÖ †×¬ÖÛú ÃÖÖ£ÖÔÛú Æîü … (1) Ûêú¾Ö»Ö A (2) Ûêú¾Ö»Ö B (3) ®Ö ŸÖÖê A †Öî¸ ®Ö Æüßü B … (4) A †Öî¸ü B ¤üÖê®ÖÖë … 4. »ÖêÜÖÛú Ûêú †®ÖãÃÖÖ¸ü, ×®Ö´®Ö×»Ö×ÜÖŸÖ ´Öë ÃÖê ÛúÖî®Ö ÃÖÖ ‹Ûú ÝÖÏÖ´ÖßÞÖ †Öî¸ü ¿ÖÆü¸üß õÖê¡ÖÖë ´Öë ¯ÖµÖÖÔ¾Ö¸üÞÖßµÖ ¤ü²ÖÖ¾Ö Ûêú ¯Ö׸üÞÖÖ´ÖÖë ´Öë Ûú´Ö ´ÖÆü¢¾Ö¯ÖæÞÖÔ ‘Ö™üÛú Æîü ? (1) Ÿ¾Ö׸üŸÖ †ÖÙ£ÖÛú ×¾ÖÛúÖÃÖ (2) ˆ¯ÖµÖÖêÝÖß ¸üÖê•ÖÌÝÖÖ¸ü Ûúß ˆ¯Ö»Ö²¬ÖŸÖÖ (3) •Ö®ÖÃÖÓܵÖÖ Ûúß ¾Öéרü ¤ü¸ü (4) ×®Ö¸ÓüŸÖ¸ü ¯ÖµÖÖÔ¾Ö¸üÞÖßµÖ ˆ¯ÖêõÖÖ 5. ÝÖªÖÓ¿Ö Ûêú †®ÖãÃÖÖ¸ü, Æü´Ö †²Ö ŸÖÛú ×®Ö´®Ö×»Ö×ÜÖŸÖ ´Öë ÃÖê ×ÛúÃÖ ¯Ö¸ü †×¬ÖÛú ²Ö»Ö ¤êü “ÖãÛêú Æïü ? (1) ˆ¯Ö»Ö²¬Ö ¯ÖÏÖÛéúןÖÛú ÃÖÓÃÖÖ¬Ö®ÖÖë ÛúÖ †×¬ÖÛú ˆ¯ÖµÖÖêÝÖ (2) ´Öæ»Ö ÃÖã×¾Ö¬ÖÖ†Öë Ûúß ÃÖÓܵÖÖ ´Öë ¾Öéרü †Öî¸ü †®ÖêÛú »ÖõµÖÖë ÛúÖê ¯ÖæÞÖÔ Ûú¸ü®ÖÖ (3) ˆ¯Ö»Ö²¬Ö ×¾Ö¢Ö ÛúÖ †×¬ÖÛúŸÖ´Ö ˆ¯ÖµÖÖêÝÖ (4) –ÖÖŸÖ ¯ÖÏÖîªÖê×ÝÖ×ÛúµÖÖë ÛúÖ †®ÖãÃÖ¸üÞÖ 6. ‡ÃÖ ÝÖªÖÓ¿Ö Ûêú ÃÖÓ¤ü³ÖÔ ´Öë ×®Ö´®Ö×»Ö×ÜÖŸÖ ´Öë ÃÖê ÛúÖî®Ö ÃÖÖ Ûú£Ö®Ö ÃÖŸµÖ ®ÖÆüà Æîü ? (1) †²Ö Æü´Öë ´ÖÖ®Ö¾Ö ÃÖÓÃÖÖ¬Ö®Ö ×¾ÖÛúÖÃÖ Ûêú ¯ÖõÖÖë ¯Ö¸ü ²Ö»Ö ¤êü®ÖÖ ÆüÖêÝÖÖ … (2) †×¬ÖÛú ¯ÖÖ¸Óü¯Ö׸üÛú ‘Ö™üÛúÖë Ûúß ŸÖã»Ö®ÖÖ ´Öë ¯ÖÏÖîªÖê×ÝÖÛúßµÖ õÖ´ÖŸÖÖ ¯Ö¸ü ¯ÖÏÖ£Ö×´ÖÛúŸÖÖ ÃÖê ²Ö»Ö ¤êü®ÖÖ ÆüÖêÝÖÖ … (3) Æü´Ö ¯ÖµÖÖÔ¾Ö¸üÞÖ Ûêú ´ÖÆ¢¾Ö Ûúß ˆ¯ÖêõÖÖ ®ÖÆüà Ûú¸ü ÃÖÛúŸÖê … (4) –ÖÖŸÖ ¯ÖÏÖîªÖê×ÝÖ×ÛúµÖÖë ÛúÖê †¯Ö®ÖÖ®Öê ÃÖê Æüß Æü´ÖÖ¸üÖ ³Ö×¾Ö嵅 ˆ••¾Ö»Ö ²Ö®ÖêÝÖÖ … 7. ÝÖªÖÓ¿Ö Ûêú †®ÖãÃÖÖ¸ü, ×®Ö´®Ö×»Ö×ÜÖŸÖ ´Öë ÃÖê ×ÛúÃÖÛúÖê ×¾ÖÛúÖÃÖ Ûêú ÛúÖ¸üÛú Ûêú ºþ¯Ö ´Öë ®ÖÆüà ¤êüÜÖÖ •ÖÖŸÖÖ ? (1) þÖÖãµÖ ÃÖê¾ÖÖ†Öë ´Öë ÃÖã¬ÖÖ¸ü (2) †»¯Ö¸üÖê•ÖÌÝÖÖ¸ü ´Öë ¾Öéרü (3) ŸÖÛú®ÖßÛúß ÛúÖî¿Ö»ÖÖë ´Öë ¾Öéרü (4) ÃÖÖõÖ¸üŸÖÖ ´Öë ÃÖã¬ÖÖ¸ü 8. †¸ü»Öß †ÖêÃÖË“ÖÖ‡Ô»›ü ®Öê †¯Ö®Öß ¯ÖãßÖÛú ‘¤ü ™üÖ‡Ô´Ö ²ÖÖ‡Ó›ü : ¾Æêü®Ö ÆüÖê´Ö ײÖÛËú´ÃÖ ¾ÖÛÔú ‹Þ›ü ¾ÖÛÔú ײÖÛú´ÃÖ ÆüÖê´Ö’ ´Öë ÛúÖµÖÔÃ£Ö»Ö ŸÖ£ÖÖ ‘Ö¸ü Ûêú ²Öß“Ö ÃÖÛú»Ö ÃÖ´ÖÖÛú»Ö®Ö Ûêú ÜÖŸÖ¸êü ÛúÖê ¸êüÜÖÖÓ×ÛúŸÖ ×ÛúµÖÖ Æîü וÖÃÖÛêú ÛúÖ¸üÞÖ µÖÖ ŸÖÖê ¾µÖ׌ŸÖ ‘†ŸµÖ׬ÖÛú ÛúÖ´ÖÛúÖ•Öß’ ÆüÖê •ÖÖŸÖÖ Æîü µÖÖ ×±ú¸ü ‘ÛúÖµÖÔ´ÖÖê“ÖÛú’ ²Ö®Ö •ÖÖŸÖÖ Æîü … ¯ÖÆü»Öß ×ãÖ×ŸÖ ´Öë ¾ÖÆü ¯Ö׸ü¾ÖÖ¸ü Ûúß ˆ¯ÖêõÖÖ Ûú¸üŸÖÖ Æîü †Öî¸ü ‡ÃÖÛúÖ ‹ÆüÃÖÖÃÖ ˆÃÖê ²ÖÆãüŸÖ ¤êü¸ü ÃÖê ÆüÖêŸÖÖ Æîü •Ö²Ö×Ûú ¤æüÃÖ¸üÖ ÛúÖµÖÔÃ£Ö»Ö ¯Ö¸ü ‘Ûãú¿Ö»ÖŸÖÖ’ ÃÖê ÃÖ´Ö—ÖÖîŸÖÖ Ûú¸üŸÖÖ Æîü … ˆ¯Ö¸üÖêŒŸÖ Ûú£Ö®Ö ÃÖê ÛúÖî®Ö ÃÖê ×®ÖÂÛúÂÖÔ ×®ÖÛúÖ»Öê •ÖÖ ÃÖÛúŸÖê Æïü ? (a) ‘Ö¸ü ÛúÖê ÛúÖµÖÔÃ£Ö»Ö ²Ö®ÖÖ®ÖÖ †Öî¸ü ÛúÖµÖÔÃ£Ö»Ö ÛúÖê ‘Ö¸ü ²Ö®ÖÖ®ÖÖ •ÖÖê ‹Ûú †Ö¤ü¿ÖÔ ×ãÖ×ŸÖ Æîü … (b) ‘Ö¸ü ÛúÖê ÛúÖµÖÔÃ£Ö»Ö ²Ö®ÖÖ®ÖÖ ŸÖ£ÖÖ ÛúÖµÖÔÃ£Ö»Ö ÛúÖê ‘Ö¸ü ²Ö®ÖÖ®ÖÖ †“”êû ÛúÖ´ÖÝÖÖ¸ü ÛúÖê †×ŸÖ ÛúÖ´ÖÛúÖ•Öß ¯Ö¸ÓüŸÖã ²Öã¸üÖ ÝÖéÆüÃ£Ö ²Ö®ÖÖ ÃÖÛúŸÖÖ Æîü … וÖÃÖÛêú ¯Ö׸üÞÖÖ´Öþֺþ¯Ö ¯Ö׸ü¾ÖÖ¸ü ÛúÖ ×¾Ö‘Ö™ü®Ö ÆüÖê ÃÖÛúŸÖÖ Æîü … (c) Ûú´ÖÔ“ÖÖ¸üß ‘ÃÖÖê»›üظüÝÖ’ ÛúÖ †Ö¿ÖµÖ ×ÛúÃÖß ÛúÖ´Ö ÛúÖê †ÖÃÖÖ®Ö...
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