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Unformatted text preview: (7) 英语话中国 Say China in English (《英语话中国》)(修订版)一书简介 主编 冯伟年 副主编 朱益平 张倩 顾雁 审校 郝克琦 西安电子科技大学出版社出版 出版时间:2004 年 12 月 定价:18 元 出版发行:西安电子科技大学出版社(西安市太白南路 2 号) 电话:(029)88242885 88201467 邮编:710071 随着我国现代化建设事业的蓬勃发展,社会各行各业对英语的需求日益增长,英语使 用场合日益增多,范围日益扩大,英语已成为我国最通用的国际交流语言。国际交流是双 向的,它包括两个层面,一是将外国的情况介绍给中国,二是将中国的情况介绍给外国。 我国学习英语的人,不论是学校的正规学习,还是业余自学,他们所接触的英语素材绝大 部分来自英美等西方国家,英语语言知识中所反映的政治、经济、文化、社会等内容也大 多数是以英语语言国家为背景的。无可非议,这样可以学到地道、规范的英语语言。然而 在学习英语过程中,由于我们很少或较少接触用英语全面、系统地介绍中国国情的素材, 因此,我国的不少留学生、大学毕业生以及在校学生,在向外国人介绍中国的改革开放成 就,介绍中国的政治、经济、文化、教育、科技、社会等具体情况时,或在校园英语角进 行会话时,不会用英语流利地表达。特别是对改革开放 20 多年来我国涌现出的各种新事物、 新名词,不会用合适的英语术语来表达。由于在校期间没有经过这方面系统的学习和训练 许多人在涉外交往中,对于中国国内发生的事只能用英语泛泛地说一说,不能作具体深入 的阐述。 美国斯坦福大学一位华裔教授曾统计过,包括《纽约时报》、《华盛顿邮报》在内的 美国五大主要报刊,凡刊登有关中国的报道,每 12 篇文章中只有 1 篇是比较客观公正的, 其余的都是片面的,甚至是歪曲事实真相的,或具有强烈反华倾向的。其主要原因,当然 是美国新闻媒体对日益强大的中国抱有偏见。还有一个不可忽视的因素,就是我国的对外 宣传工作做得很不够,不论在国内还是在国外,我国出版物中,用英语正面、系统地介绍 我国国情的材料较少,特别是面向中国读者的这类书籍更少。笔者在美国学术访问期间发 现,当美国老百姓就中国国内发生的各种事件邀请中国留学生谈谈自己的看法时, 有不少人 竟说不出个所以然,不能理直气壮地、详尽地、令人心服地向美国人民解释中国的国情和 事实的真相。究其原因,一方面是因为他们对自己祖国的事情“知之甚少”;另一方面,是 因为他们不知道如何用流利的英语表达具有一定特色的中国国情。因为他们在国内学习期 间,学习英语的主要目的是通过“英语四、六级考试”、TOEFL、GRE 等考试,很少接受以 中国国情为主的英语口语和阅读训练。这种缺憾再次引证了编写《英语话中国》这本书的 必要性和紧迫性。 《英语话中国》全部说的是中国人自己的事,中国人读起来饶有兴趣。此书题材广泛, 内容新颖,针对性强,实用性强。读这一本书,对提高英语口语、阅读、翻译、写作水平 都有帮助。此书为学习汉译英的学生提供背景知识。这本书对外国人来说,也是了解中国 的一个窗口。 本书共分为六大部分,分别是:一、A Civilized and Beautiful Country(文明美丽的国 家 ) ; 二 、 China’s Politics and Foreign Relationships ( 政 治 与 外 交 关 系 ) ; 三 、 China’s Economy and Reform ( 经 济 和 改 革 ) ; 四 、 China’s Culture, Education, Science and Technology(文化、教育、科技);五、Social Hot Issues(社会热点问题);六、Major Traditional Festivals(主要传统节日)与第一版相比,此书更紧跟时代步伐,材料更新颖。 本书第二至第五部分的材料全部是 2002——2004 年的最新资料。每篇英文材料前附有中 文的内容提要,英文材料后附有英汉对照的“生词和短语”,以帮助读者克服阅读中的障碍。 本书所用英语材料均精选于近年来我国公开发行的主要英语报刊、杂志和书籍。所有 文章都经过外籍英语专家润色过,语言准确,规范、地道。本书适用于具有中等以上水平 的英语爱好者,尤其适用于各类大专学生,英语教师、翻译工作者、出国人员、涉外单位 和旅游部门的工作人员。 《北京周报》、《今日中国》杂志社对本书的出版给予热情的支持。此书 2000 年在全 国发行后,受到广大读者,特别是大学生的普遍欢迎,发行量达 2 万册。2004 年 12 月修 订版问世。 英汉注释说读写译背景材料 英语话中国 (修订版) Say China in English 主 编 冯伟年 副主编 朱益平 张 倩 顾 雁 审 校 郝克琦 西安电子科技大学出版社 CONTENTS 目录 I. A CIVILIZED AND BEAUTIFUL COUNTRY 文明美丽的国家 1. The Geographical Features of China 多姿多彩的地形地貌……………………………………………………… 2. Famous Mountains in China 攀五岳,访四大佛教名山…………………………………………………… 3. China’s Three Major Plains 三大平原——神州粮仓……………………………………………………… 4. China’s Lakes 星罗棋布的湖泊……………………………………………………………… 5. China’s Sea Areas 辽阔的海域…………………………………………………………………… 6. China’ s Three Large Deltas 经济发达的三角洲…………………………………………………………… 7. China’s Rivers 滋润华夏大地的江河…………………………………………………………… 8. China’s Climate 复杂多样的气候………………………………………………………………… 9. China’s Flora and Fauna 丰富的动植物群………………………………………………………………………………… 10. China’s Nature Reserves 遍布全国的自然保护区…………………………………………………………… 11. Four Great Inventions 四大发明………………………………………………………………………………………… 12. China’s National Flag, Emblem and Anthem 国旗、国徽和国歌…………………………………………………………………… 13. China’s Administrative Divisions 中国行政区……………………………………………………………………………………… 14. The State Structure of China 中国的国家机构……………………………………………………………………… 15. China’s Democratic Parties 八大民主党派…………………………………………………………………………………… 16. The Chinese Trade Unions 中国工会………………………………China’s Academic Degree System 中国的学位制度……………………………………………………………………… II. CHINA’S POLITICS, MAJOR POLICIES AND FOREIGN RELATIONSHIP 政治生活,重大决策及对外关系 1. Healthy Sino-U.S. Ties Served Both Sides 健康的中美关系对双方均有利……………………………………………… 2. Cross-Strait Direct Links Urged 海峡两岸的“直接三通”迫在眉睫…………………………………………… 3. Direct Elections: A Key Step Toward Self-Government At the Grassroots Level 直接选举:基层政权实行自治的重要一步………………………………… 4. Anti-Corruption: A Long-term Task 反腐败斗争——任重而道远………………………………………………… 5. Great Capital: A Solution to the “Agriculture, Countryside and Farmers” Problem 投入巨资:三农问题的解决办法……………………………………………… 6. All Round Fight Against Terrorism 全面打击恐怖主义……………………………………………………………… 7. Tackling Food Safety Problem 高度重视食品安全问题………………………………………………………… 8. China Strives to Catch Up with Strong Software Countries 中国急起直追软件强国…………………………………………………… 9. Changing Our Life by A Finger 手机王国:神奇的指尖正在改变我们的生活……………………………… III. CHINA’S ECONOMY AND REFORM 中国的经济和改革 1. Banking on Reform 中国的金融改革……………………………………………………………… 2. Consumer Empowerment 中国消费增长……………………………………………………………… 3. China’s Roadmap to Sustainable Development 中国可持续发展路线图………………………………………………… 4. Economy Needs A Healthy Environment 经济发展需要良好的环境……………………………………………… 5. China’s Torch Program: 15 Years of Hi-Tech Success 中国的火炬计划——15 年高科技成就…………………………………… 6. Further SOE Reform 深化国企改革……………………………………………………………… 7. Buy Cheap, Sell High 土地的投机买卖………………………………………………………… 8. Medical Insurance Reform 医疗保险改革……………………………………………………………… 9. Increasing Farmers’ Income: Key to National Economic Growth 增加农民收入——国民经济增长的关键………………………………… 10. China’s Telecom Industry 突飞猛进的中国电信业…………………………………………………… 11. Non-public Economy Survives Two Decades 非公有制经济蓬勃发展的二十年……………………………………… 12. Earnings Gap Needs Bridging 缩小贫富差距………………………………………………………… 13. Housing Reform 中国的住房改革……………………………………………………… 14. Tax Playing Field Leveled 中国的税收改革………………………………………………………… IV. CHINA’S CULTURE, EDUCATION, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 文化、教育、科技 1. Education: Paying the Price 付费受教育……………………………………………………………… 2. Distance Education Flourishes 远程教育方兴未艾…………………………………………………… 3. A Higher Threshold for PhD Students 博士入学门槛升高……………………………………………………… 4. Hunt for Talent, Fight for Survival 人才竞争 适者生存…………………………………………………… 5. Piracy Wars 反盗版斗争…………………………………………………………… 6. Finding the Breakthrough for Chinese Film 中国电影如何突出重围……………………………………………… 7. Go West 到西部去………………………………………………………………… 8. Yao Ming: The Chinese NBA Player 姚明:中国的 NBA 球员……………………………………………… 9. More Chinese Tourists Go Abroad 中国公民出境游…………………………………………………………… 10.Keeping Drugs Out of the Games 让运动员远离兴奋剂…………………………………………………… 11. Olympic Investment War 奥运投资战…………………………………………………………… 12. Psychological Health of the Youth Cause for Concern 关注青少年的心理健康…………………………………………… 13. Traditional Chinese Medicine: Tried and True 中医:一试就灵………………………………………………………… 14. Perspectives on a New Life 生活新时尚……………………………………………………………… 15. Talented Women of Ancient China 中国古代的才女们……………………………………………………… 16. Women and Marriage in China 中国妇女婚姻观……………………………………………………… 17. Fighting a Full-scale Battle with Environmental Pollution 全面治理环境污染……………………………………………………… 18. Block Tax Evasion by the Rich 禁止富人偷税漏税……………………………………………………… 19. China’s UNESCO-Listed Geoparks 联合国教科文组织公布的中国八大地质公园………………………… V. SOCIAL HOT ISSUES 社会热点问题 1. SARS Changes China 非典改变中国……………………………………………………………………… 2. Should Pets Be Killed to Prevent and Control SARS? 宰杀动物可以预防和控制非典吗?……………………………… 3. Prevention Better Than Cure 紧急应对禽流感………………………………………………… 4. Goodbye Agricultural Tax 取消农业税:大势所趋………………………………………… 5. Making It Legal 依法治国………………………………………………… 6. Legal Assistance: Government Duty 法律援助:政府的责任…………………………………… 7. It’s Payback Time 大学生助学贷款:如何保证还贷?…………………………… 8. Reform: One Word That Shakes a 105-year-old University 高校改革………………………………………… 9. Education For Sale 教育乱收费……………………………………… 10. Just the Job 全方位解决就业问题………………………………… 11. Projects for The 2008 Olympic Games 2008 年的奥运工程…………………………………… 12. China vs. AIDS 中国防治艾滋病……………………………………… 13. The Choice Against Corruption 中国的反腐败斗争…………………………………… 14. Oh Boy, Where Are the Girls? 都生男孩,女孩到哪里找?…………………………… VI. MAJOR TRADITIONAL FESTIVALS 主要传统节日 1. Spring Festival 春节……………………………………………………………………………………………… 2. Lantern Festival 元宵节…………………………………………………………………………………………… 3. Qingming Festival 清明节…………………………………………………………………………………………… 4. Dragon Boat Festival 端午节…………………………………………………………………… 5. Mid-Autumn Festival 中秋节…………………………………………………………………………………………… 6. National Day 国庆节…………………………………………………………………………………………… 7. Double Ninth Festival 重阳节…………………………………………………………………………………………… 8. The Laba Rice Porridge Festival 腊八节…………………………………………………………………… Major Reference Material Ι. A CIVILIZED AND BEATIFUL COUNTRY 1.The Geographical Features of China 多姿多彩的地形地貌 内容 提要 提 要 本文简要介绍了中国的地理位置、土地面积、地形特征和全国地形 之最――最大的海、最大的岛、最大的湖、最大的盆地、最大的沙漠等等。 Area and Position China is located in the Eastern Hemisphere, in East Asia on the west coast of the Pacific Ocean. The land area of China is 9.6 million sq. km, making it the largest country in Asia. China is the third largest country in the world after Russia and Canada. Territory of China: China extends from the main channel of the Heilongjiang River of Mohe, Heilongjiang Province to the Zengmu Reef of the Nansha Islands in the south, a total distance of 5,500 km. It goes from the confluence of the Heilongjiang and Wusuli rivers in the east to the Pamir Plateau in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in the west, a distance of 5,200 km. The land border is 22,800 km long and touches 15 foreign countries. The coastline of China is 18,000 km long. Topography China has a varied topography. It is high in the west and low in the east. The proportions of the varied topography are: mountainous regions make up 33 percent, plateaus 26 percent, basins 19 percent, plains 12 percent and hills 10 percent. China has many mountains. Of the 12 mountains over 8,000 meters high in the world, seven are in China. The great mountains form the outlines of many mountain systems, plateaus, basins, plains and hills. All of these are influenced by mountains to a certain degree. The different mountain ranges have become important topographic boundaries and agricultural lines of demarcation. China’s Topography “Superlatives” The biggest sea area: China’s sea area includes the Bohai, Yellow, East China, and South China seas. The biggest one is the South China Sea. Its area is 3.6 million sq. km and the average water depth is over 1,200 meters. The largest island: Taiwan is the largest island, with an area of 35,700 sq. km, followed by Hainan Island and Chongming Island. The longest river: The Yangtze River, 6,300 km long, is the longest one in China. The Yellow River, 5,464 km long, is the second longest. The longest continental river in China is the Tarim River in Xinjiang, 2,137 km long. The largest lake: Qinghai Lake is the largest in China with a total area of 4,583 sq. km. After this are Poyang Lake in Jiangxi Province, Dongting Lake in Hunan Province and Lake Tai in Jiangsu Province. The highest mountain: Mount Qomolangma in Tibet, at 8,848 meters, is the highest mountain in the world, second by Qogir Peak of the Karakorum Mountains. The largest basin: China has four large basins. Sichuan Basin is the largest outflow basin in China. Tarim Basin and Junggar Basin are the largest continental basins in China. Qaidam Basin in Qinghai is the highest basin; its bottom is at an elevation of 2,600-3,000 meters above sea level. It has rich mineral resources and has been known as the “treasure bowl.” The highest plateau: There are four large plateaus in China. The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is the highest in the world at an average elevation of 4,000 meters. Its area is 2.5 million sq. kilometers. After this are the Inner Mongolia Plateau, the Loess Plateau and the Yunnan-Guihou Plateau. The largest plain: There are three large plains in China. The Northeast Plain is the largest, the North China Plain is the second and the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River Plain is the third. The largest desert: Taklimakan Desert in Xinjiang is the largest desert, with an area of 327,400 sq. kilometers. Temperature: The Tianchi Lake on Baitou Mountain in Jilin Province is the place with the lowest temperature in China. Its average annual temperature is – 7.4ºC. The Xisha Islands in Guangdong Province have an average annual temperature of 26.4ºC. Rainfall: The place with the greatest annual precipitation is Huoshaoliao in Taiwan Province. Its annual precipitation is over 8,400 mm. But the annual precipitation in Toksun in Xingjiang is less than 6 mm. Sunshine: The place with the most sunshine time is Leng Lake in Qinghai Province, with its average annual sunshine totaling over 3,500 hours. But Mount Emei in Sichuan Province receives only 950 hours. Wind speed: The greatest average annual wind speed is at Tianchi on Baitou Mountain in Jilin Province. The wind speed there is 11.7 meters per second. But Jinghong in Yunnan Province has winds of only a half-meter per second. The greatest wind speed can reach 70-75 meters per second in Taidong, Taiwan Province. (China Today February 1996) New Words and Expressions average annual temperature 年平均温度 confluence n. 汇合处 demarcation n. 分界;界限 elevation n. 海拔高度 loess n. 黄土 Zengmu Reef 曾母暗沙 middle and lower reaches 中下游 precipitation n. 降雨量 Topography “Superlatives” 地形之最 treasure bowl 聚宝盆 Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region 新 疆 维 吾尔自治区 reef n. 暗礁 plateau n. 高原 2.Famous Mountains in China 攀五岳,访四大佛教名山 内容 提要 本文简要介绍了中国的五岳——泰山、华山、衡山、恒山、嵩山;四大 佛教圣地——五台山、峨眉山、九华山、普陀山,以及旅游胜地黄山和庐 山。阅读本文,你可了解到中国名山的地理位置、海拔高度以及各具特色 的美丽 风光。文章文字优美,不失为一篇精练的旅游指南。 China is home to many famous mountains, such as the “Five Great Mountains”, the four sacred peaks of Buddhism, Huangshan and Lushan. Mountain areas cover two-thirds of the country. The Five Great Mountains “The Five Great Mountains,” located in the central China, were named according to the cardinal points on the compass, including Mount Tai to the east in Shandong Province, Mount Hua to the west in Shaanxi Province, Mount Heng to the south in Hunan Province, Mount Heng (same sound but different character in Chinese) to the north in Shanxi Province, and Mount Song in the center in Henan Province. Mount Tai is in central Shandong Province to the south of the Yellow River, the second longest river in China. Its highest peak, Yuhuangding, is 1,545 meters above sea level, but absolute altitude and relative altitude are the highest within a circumference of several thousand kilometers. Since the Qin Dynasty (221-209 B.C.) many Chinese emperors held various sacrifices and religious rites on Mount Tai, making the mountain a holy site. The Dai Temple at the foot of the mountain and steles on the mountain itself reflect the ancient culture of the area. Mount Hua is located in Huayin County of Shaanxi Province. It got its name (“Hua” means flower in Chinese) because its five peaks resemble a blooming lotus, but it is also the most precipitous among China’s mountains. The Qianchidong Trail, just one meter wide, is the only path up to Mount Hua. Mount Heng in Hunan is located on the west bank of the Xiangjiang River. It has 72 peaks, with the summit, Zhurong, 1,290 meters above sea level. Mount Heng, with its dense forests, is renowned as one of the most beautiful mountains in China. Another mountain also named Heng is situated in northeastern Shanxi Province. The summit, Xuanwu peak is 2,017 meters above sea level. Beiyue temple was built atop the mountain about 1,000 years ago. The Hanging Temple was built halfway up the mountain over a precipice. Finally, the Ying County Wood pagoda, the oldest and largest of its kind in China, sits nearby. Mount Song is located on the south bank of the Yellow River. Its summit is 1,500 meters above the sea level. The nearby Shaolin Temple is the birthplace of Zen Buddhism, and even today the temple’s collection of stupas is the largest in China. The Zhongyue Temple is also located here, one of the earliest Taoist temples in the country. The Songyang Academy nearby was one of the four great academies of ancient China. The Four Sacred Mountains of Buddhism Buddhism claims the most followers of any religion in China, and over time there came to be four mountains worshipped by the faithful: Wutai in Shanxi, Emei in Sichuan, Jiuhua in Anhui, and Putuo in Zhejiang. Wutai has four peaks thoughtfully laid out by Mother Nature according to the natural points of the compass, with a fifth in the middle. They have been worn smooth and wide by time, hence the mountain’s name, “Five Terraces” or Wutai in Chinese. Wutai sits 3,000 meters above sea level. According to statistics, Wutai has more than 70 temples containing over 20,000 Buddhist statues. Emei is located in western Sichuan Province. It features many attractive places, especially the summit, or “golden peak.” Atop the peak are many unusual scenes of nature such as “Buddha’s halo,” and the local monkeys that call Emei their home are well accustomed to the foibles of visitors. Jiuhua is located in southern Anhui Province, and it too is home to many ancient Buddhist temples. There are seven Buddhist pagodas and over 60 temples still standing, including the Dharmakaya statue of the eminent monk Yingshen of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). Putuo is located in the East China Sea in northeast Zhejiang. There are three temples here, Puji, Fayu and Huiji, occupying a special position in Chinese Buddhist architecture. Huangshan and Lushan Huangshan in southern Anhui is well known for its karst formations, clouds, pine trees and hot springs. Huangshan is shrouded in boiling seas of clouds about 200 days a year, one of the main attractions in the area. Pine trees grow upon precipices, assuming strange shapes as they cling to the rocks. The “Yingke Pine Tree,” t name just one, is a local landmark welcoming visitors. The local hot springs maintain a constant temperature year round. Huangshan is very popular with traditional Chinese landscape painters. Lushan is located in northern Jiangxi. Like Huangshan, it is home to seas of clouds and mists, which become especially active during the summer solstice. In winter the clouds drop down to earth, and Lushan tries in vain to peak through the formations, succeeding momentarily only to be swallowed up again. Lushan is also well known for its summer resort facilities. (China Today January 1997) New Words and Expressions altitude n 高度 Buddha’s halo 佛光 circumference n. 圆周;周围 foible n. 怪癖;癖好 karst n. 岩溶;水蚀石灰岩地区 Mount Heng 衡山 Mount Heng 恒山 precipice n. 悬崖;峭壁 3.China’s Three Major Plains precipitous a. 峻峭的;陡峭的 rite n. 仪式;典礼 sacrifice n. 献祭 shroud vt. 覆盖;掩蔽 stele n. 石碑 stupa n. 印度塔 summer solstice 夏至 terrace n. 平台;露台 三大平原——神州粮仓 内容 提要 东北平原、华北平原和长江中下游平原是中国三大产粮区,也是 重要的工业基地。 东北平原盛产大豆、小麦、玉米和甜菜;华北平原 出产小麦、玉米、水稻、棉花和花生;长江中下游平原则以“鱼米之乡”而著称。 China has three major plains—the Northeast, the North, and the Middle-Lower Yangtze. These plains are primarily the result of alluvial silt build-up from rivers, lakes and seas. These densely populated plains occupy 1.1 million square kilometers, or 11 percent of the nation’s territory. They are flat and crisscrossed by a network of rivers and lakes, set off by fertile soil. The Northeast Plain The Northeast Plain is the largest in China, covering 350,000 square kilometers in Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning provinces and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The plain was formed by deposits from the Songhua, Nenjiang and Liaohe rivers. The Northeast Plain comprises the Songnen (Songhua and Nenjiang rivers), the Sanjiang (Songhua, Heilongjiang and Wusuli rivers) and the Liaohe basins. The Northeast Plain has thick black soil. Much of the northern and northeastern reaches of the region was desolate grassland known as the “North Great Wilds” before 1949. With the setting up of many state farms since the 1950s, thousands of hectares of arable land have been created, which together with the mechanization of local farm work, has long since transformed the great wilds into one of China’s leading breadbaskets. As one of the most important grain-growing regions in China, the Northeast Plain is famous for soybeans, wheat, corn, sorghum, and sugar beets. Natural forests on the plain, some of the largest in China, abound with deciduous and broadleaf trees such as Korean pines, larches, and lindens. Harbin, on the Songnen Plain, is an important center for China’s machinery industry, and also is famous for paper-making, flax textiles, and sugar beet refineries. The rapid development of the Daqing Oilfield has made the Northeast Plain home to the largest petrochemical site in China. Rich natural resources and convenient transport on the Liaohe plain have been indispensable in developing heavy industry. Mainstay industries here include iron and steel in Anshan and Benxi, shipyards and petrochemical processing in Dalian, and chemical fibers and other enterprises in Liaoyang. The North Plain The North Plain, the second largest in China, was created by the Yellow (the second longest river in China), Huaihe and Haihe rivers. The plain covers ...
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