Chapter 2 study guide.pdf - Note Study guide is an outline of topics to help prepare for an exam however it is still possible that you may have few

Chapter 2 study guide.pdf - Note Study guide is an outline...

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Note: Study guide is an outline of topics to help prepare for an exam, however it is still possible that you may have few questions that may not be directly listed on the study guide. Also please refer to Learning objectives posted for each chapter posted on discussion boards as you prepare for the exam. Final Study guide for chapter 2 Chemical origin of life 1. What is a protocell? What are the components that are widely believed to make a protocell? 2. Be able to describe the formation of a covalent bond. How many bonds can a given element such as C, H, O, N, form and what is it determined by? What is an electron shell? What is an electron orbital, how many maximum number of electrons can it hold? 3. In water, which atom attracts electrons better? What is the nature of this bond? 4. Name electronegative atoms generally found in molecules that lead to polar covalent bond formation. 5. What about non-polar covalent bonds, what are kinds of atoms involved typically in such bonds? 6. How are ions formed? Explain using sodium chloride as an example. What is a cation and what is an anion? 7. What are free radicals? When do they form in the body and why are they potentially harmful at molecular level? What mechanisms does cells have to detoxify the superoxide free radical? 8. What are different kinds of non-covalent interactions? What is their importance in biological function? Even though some of them may be weak why could they still be significant? What is the bond strength for weak non-covalent interactions? 9. What is ionic interaction? Ionic interactions are pretty strong in crystal form, in vacuum or in the absence of water? What happens to them in water? 10. What are hydrogen bonds and what are the kind of atoms/ groups that participate in such bonds? Name some situations or give examples in biology where Hydrogen bonds play important roles?
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