BSC 1011C Lab Manual v5.pdf - Laboratory Manual for General Biology II(BSC 1011C Lake-Sumter State College Science Department Leesburg Table of Contents

BSC 1011C Lab Manual v5.pdf - Laboratory Manual for General...

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Laboratory Manual for General Biology II (BSC 1011C) Lake-Sumter State College Science Department Leesburg
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Lake-Sumter State College, Leesburg Laboratory Manual for BSC 1011C 2 Table of Contents Note to Students ........................................................................................................................................... 3 Exercise 1 Natural Selection ....................................................................................................................... 4 Exercise 2 - Cladistics .................................................................................................................................. 10 Exercise 3 - Prokaryotes .............................................................................................................................. 17 Exercise 4 - Protists ..................................................................................................................................... 25 Exercise 5 Plants ....................................................................................................................................... 36 Exercise 6 Fungi ........................................................................................................................................ 61 Exercise 7 Animals .................................................................................................................................... 69 Appendix I. Ascaris dissection .................................................................................................................... 84 Appendix II. Bivalve dissection ................................................................................................................... 86 Appendix III. Crayfish dissection ................................................................................................................ 88 Appendix IV. Bullfrog dissection ................................................................................................................ 91 Appendix V. Dogfish ( Squalus acanthias ) dissection ................................................................................. 95
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Lake-Sumter State College, Leesburg Laboratory Manual for BSC 1011C 3 Note to Students Students should read and study the exercises before coming to the laboratory. Students should supply themselves with the necessary materials for laboratory including the text book, lecture notes, laboratory manual, calculators, pens, pencils.
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Exercise 1 Natural Selection Introduction This lab will demonstrate the principles of natural selection as it pertains to the evolution of species. These concepts of evolution were independently derived by Alfred Russell Wallace and Charles Darwin. Darwin went on to publish his ideas in The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859). It was important Mr. Darwin be able to explain the mechanism behind the evolution of species as non- teleological in order for it to adequately substantiate the observations he had made while on his cruise aboard the British expeditionary ship, the Beagle (1831-1836). The principles are x there are limited resources in any given ecosystem x there are too many offspring born than can possibly hope to survive x variation exists in any population x some variations are advantageous x advantageous variations allow greater access to limited resource x greater access to limited resource allows for greater reproductive rate x advantageous variation is inheritable. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium provides a tool to calculate population allelic frequencies. This information is valuable as it allows investigators to make statements regarding population evolution. Providing certain conditions are not violated, the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium states genotypic frequencies will remain constant throughout successive generations. Conditions of this equilibrium are x no allelic mutations x random mating x no genetic drift (i.e., population is large enough to accommodate the laws of probability) x no emigration or immigration x no natural selection. Lab objectives include familiarity with the influence of the environment on organism fitness and the process of natural selection through differential reproductivity. Analysis of the Hardy-Weinberg values will be conducted to quantify observed changes in genotypic frequencies.
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