absorption.docx - 6.1 Digestion and absorption Nature of science Use models as representations of the real world—dialysis tubing to model absorption

absorption.docx - 6.1 Digestion and absorption Nature of...

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6.1 Digestion and absorption: Nature of science: Use models as representations of the real world—dialysis tubing to model absorption in the intestine. Understandings: β - Skill: Production of an annotated diagram of the digestive system. Structure Function Mouth/ Oral Cavity Esophagus Stomach
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Structure Function Small Intestine Pancreas Liver Gall Bladder
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Structure Function Large Intestine Check out the Inner Body website to see where everything fits into your body. You can also use this site the fill in the boxes above. ∑ - The contraction of circular and longitudinal muscle of the small intestine mixes the food
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with enzymes and moves it along the gut. The contraction of circular and longitudinal muscle of the small intestine helps mix (mechanical digestion) the food with enzymes and moves the semi-digested food (bolus) along the gut in a process called peristalsis These muscles are made up of smooth muscle The process by which continual waves of contraction and relaxation (peristalsis) of the circular and longitudinal muscle occur along the muscle layers surrounding the small intestine is controlled by the autonomic nervous system Food is transported slowly through the small intestine to allow for maximum digestion and absorption of nutrients Video showing peristalsis (turn off the music as it is terrible) Smooth muscle function ∑ - The pancreas secretes enzymes (amylase, lipase and an endopeptidase) into the lumen of the small intestine. Enzymes are biological catalysts that speed up the rate of reaction in chemical digestion. Enzymes in digestion catalyze hydrolysis reactions. Pancreatic juice secreted into small intestine contains enzymes such as: Endopeptidases – example trypsin (breaks apart the peptide bond between amino acids in polypeptides) Lipases – catalyzes the hydrolysis of lipids (triglycerides and phospholipids) Amylases - digestion of starch. Pancreatic juice is alkaline (basic) to allow enzymes to work at an optimal pH (around 7- 8 in the small intestine). The pancreas is controlled by the enteric nervous system and through hormones produced and released by the stomach.
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Enzymes are produced by ribosomes in the pancreatic gland cells, excreted by exocytosis into smaller ducts, which converge to form the pancreatic duct. Pancreatic juice flows through the pancreatic duct into the lumen of the small intestine
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∑ - Enzymes digest most macromolecules in food into monomers in the small intestine (starch,
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