OIA_06_particle_00.pdf - Light as a Particle Optics Imaging...

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Light as a Particle Optics & Imaging A
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Origin of photons Sun Fusion (hydrogen into helium) ~1 kW/m2 reaches Earth Roughly follows blackbody spectrum
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Origin of photons Flame Oxidation, hot gases Roughly follows blackbody spectrum
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Modern photon sources
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Molecular processes for photon generation Jablonski diagrams & spectra
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Detecting photons Eyes
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Detecting photons Light sensitive chemicals (film photography)
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Detecting photons Electronic (CCDs, PMTs)
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Shot noise Photon counting follows Poisson statistics. Mean = N (number of photons detected) Std. dev. = sqrt(N) SNR = N / sqrt(N) You can’t beat shot noise. So the numbers of photons you count directly a ff ects your SNR. Build up of interference pattern Time
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Photon budgets in system design Limits what we can measure: Signal to noise (shot noise) E ciency of the system (fraction of photons we can a ff ord to lose) Flux of the photon source (brightness) Photon flux the sample can withstand (photodamage)
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Pulling it all together
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