Chapter 1.doc - CHAPTER I EVOLUTION OF MANAGEMENT LEARNING OBJECTIVES After reading and studying this chapter the reader should be able to 1 Define


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LEARNING OBJECTIVES After reading and studying this chapter, the reader should be able to: 1. Define Management 2. Identify the levels of management 3. Determine the skills needed to be an effective manager 4. Identify the different roles of management 5. Describe the basic management functions 6. Explain the important contribution of evolution of management 7. Identify and explain the five (5) M’s of management
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WHAT IS MANAGEMENT? anagement is the process of managing the resources effectively and efficiently. The process represents the continuous or ongoing activities of a manager (Robbins & Coulter, 2004). To be efficient means minimal waste of resources or inputs in achieving the goal(Bateman & Snell, 2008). It is often referred as doing things right. Effectively refers to accomplishing a tasks or achieving a goal. It is often describe as doing the right things. A manager is responsible for achieving organizations goals and objectives and responsible in utilizing the firms resources (Lussier, 2006). An Organization is a group of people working together towards a common goal. M There are the different types of resources that a firm has; these are physical resources (e.g.,equipment, machinery, building), human resources (e.g., managers, employees ) financial resources (e.g., cash, accounts receivables) and informational resources (e.g., customers information, survey data results, financial statements.) A firm’s resources can be sources of competitive advantage if it is rare, valuable, and difficult to imitate. Competitive Advantage is an advantage over competitors gained by offering greater customer value(Armstrong & Kotler, 2010 p.223). LEVELS OF MANAGEMENT As the organization is evolving the nature of a manager’s task also changes. It also adapts to the demand of different forces of the work environment. There are (3) three levels of management: (1) The top level management also known as the executive level is the highest level of management, people who occupy this level are the senior executives such as the (CEO) Chief Executive Officers, (COO) Chief Operation Officer, TOP LEVEL MANAGEMENT MIDDLE LEVEL MANAGEMENT FRONT LINE MANAGEMENT
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(CIO) Chief Information Officer, president and the vice president. Top managers are responsible for the overall direction of the organization. They are often called strategic managers. The people in the middle level management are the (2) middle managers. They hold positions like Division Manager, Sales Manager and Area Manager. They are often called tactical managers. They are responsible for translating the general goals and plans that are developed by strategic managers into more specific objectives and activities (Bateman & Snell, 2008, p23). (3) The front line managers are the lower level managers they are also called first line managers or operational managers they are responsible in training and motivating employees. Part of being at the lower level management they supervise and monitor the operational activities of the firms and they report directly to the middle managers.
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