BA 1- Chapter 16- Handouts.docx - Chapter 16 Motivation 1 What is Motivation a Motivation refers to the process by which a person’s efforts are

BA 1- Chapter 16- Handouts.docx - Chapter 16 Motivation 1...

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Chapter 16: Motivation 1) What is Motivation? a) Motivation refers to the process by which a person’s efforts are energized, directed, and sustained toward attaining a goal. b) Three key elements of motivation: i) Energy element is a measure of intensity, drive, and vigor. A motivated person puts forth effort and works hard. However, the quality of the effort must be considered as well as its intensity. ii) High levels of effort don’t necessarily lead to favorable job performances unless the effort is channeled in a direction that benefits the organization where effort is directed toward, and consistent with, organizational goals. iii) Persistence dimension where employees persist in putting forth effort to achieve goals. 2) Early Theories of Motivation a) Hierarchy of Needs Theory – Abraham Maslow was a psychologist who proposed that within every person is a hierarchy of five needs: Self- Actualization Higher-order needs Safety Lower-order Physiological needs Maslow argued that each level in the needs hierarchy must be substantially satisfied before the next need becomes dominant. Managers using Maslow’s hierarchy to motivate employees do things to satisfy employees’ needs. b) Theory X and Theory Y i) Douglas McGregor - he is best known for proposing two assumptions about human nature: THEORY X and THEORY Y (1) Theory X - negative view of people (2) Theory Y - positive view of people c) Two-Factor Theory i) Frederick Herzberg - he wanted to know when people felt exceptionally good (satisfied) or bad (dissatisfied) about their jobs. (1) Two-Factor Theory -also called motivation-hygiene theory proposes that: (a) Intrinsic Factors ( Motivators )- are related to JOB SATISFACTION (eg. Achievement, Recognition) (b) EXTRINSIC FACTORS ( Hygiene Factors) are associated with JOB DISSATISFACTION (eg. Supervision, Company Policy) Social Esteem
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HERZBERG’S View of Motivation d) Three-Needs Theory i) David McClelland and his associates propose the three- needs theory which states that there are 3 acquired needs that are major motives in work. (1) Need for achievement (nAch)- the drive to succeed and excel in relation to a set of standards. People with a high nAch are striving for personal achievement rather than for the trappings and rewards of success and they desire to do something better. (2) Need for power (nPow)- the need to make others behave in a way that they would not behaved otherwise (3) Need for affliation (nAff)- the need for friendly and close interpersonal relationships ii) A high need to achieve doesn’t necessarily lead to being a good manager because they focus on their OWN ACCOMPLISHMENTS while good managers emphasize helping OTHERS accomplish their goals.
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