UTF-8%27%27Nutrition%2520Fitness%2520and%2520Physical%2520Activity%2520Outline.docx - Nutrition Fitness and Sports Chapter 14 Outline Key Terms

UTF-8%27%27Nutrition%2520Fitness%2520and%2520Physical%2520Activity%2520Outline.docx

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Nutrition: Fitness and Sports Chapter 14 Outline Key Terms Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) Aerobic Anaerobic Carbohydrate loading Creatine Ergogenic Exercise Heat cramps Heat exhaustion Heatstroke Lactic acid Moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity Phosphocreatine (PCr) Physical activity Physical fitness Vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity Lecture Outline 14.1 An Introduction to Physical Fitness A. Benefits of regular physical activity 1. Improvement of heart function 2. Less injury 3. Better sleep habits 4. Body composition improvement 5. Stress reduction 6. Blood pressure reduction 7. Blood cholesterol reduction 8. Blood glucose regulation 9. Enhanced immune function 10. Aids in weight control B. 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommend adults avoid inactivity. 1. Engage in 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity, or 75 minutes per week of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity for substantial health benefits. 2. Additional health benefits are seen with 300 minutes of moderate-intensity activity per week or 150 minutes of vigorous-intensity activity per week. 3. Include muscle-strengthening activities 2×/week. 14.2 Achieving and Maintaining Physical Fitness 1. FITT principle: Frequency, Intensity, Time, Type of exercise 2. Aerobic exercises enhance heart and lung functions. a. Use large muscle groups in a rhythmic fashion and aim to increase
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heart rate. b. ACSM recommends 30 minutes per day moderate-intensity aerobic activities 5 days/week. c. Examples: brisk walking, running, cycling, etc. d. Intensity i. Target zone for heart rate is 55–90% of age-predicted maximum heart rate (= 220 – age) (see Figure 14-2) 3. Muscular fitness encompasses strength, endurance, and power. a. Training i. Muscular strength: maximal force a muscle can exert against a load at one time ii. Muscular endurance: ability of the muscle to perform repeated, sub-maximal contractions over time without fatigue iii. Muscular power: combines strength with speed for explosive movement 4. Flexibility exercises enhance balance and stability 5. Warm-up and cool-down 14.3 Energy Sources for Exercising Muscles A. Overview 1. ATP: immediate source of energy for body functions 2. Energy in food is converted to ATP a. ADP + food energy + phosphate group ATP b. ATP energy to do work + ADP + phosphate group B. Anaerobic metabolism supplies energy for short bursts of intense activity 1. Stored ATP a. Resting muscle can store enough ATP to keep a muscle working for about 2–4 seconds b. Cells must constantly and repeatedly use and then re-form ATP using various sources of energy.
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