CRJ105 - After Actions Report - Unit 02.docx - Chapter 3 4 BIOSOCIAL 1 What are the central assumptions of biological theories of crime • The brain is

CRJ105 - After Actions Report - Unit 02.docx - Chapter 3 4...

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Chapter 3 & 4: BIOSOCIAL: 1. What are the central assumptions of biological theories of crime? The brain is the organ of the mind and place of personality. Determinants of human behavior, are constitutionally or genetically based. Gender and racial differences in rates and types of criminality are the result of differences. Determinants of criminal behavior may bypasses from generation to genera- tion. Human conduct id fundamentally rooted in instinctive behavioral responses characteristics of biological organisms everywhere. Some of human behavior is a result of biological tendencies inherited from more primitive stages in evolution. Interplay among heredity, biology, and social environment provides the nexus for any real considerations of crime causation. (3.1 Principles of biological theories) 2. What does it mean to say that “the brain is the organ of the mind”? the brain is the organ of the mind because many things affect the mind, for example diseases. The mind reacts and behaves differently to what is happing just like many organs of the human body. (3.2 Physical Features and Crime) 3. What is positivism? What can positivism inform criminological theorizing? Posititivism is the scientific approach to study crime and its cause. It built on two principles:The acceptance of social determinism the belief that human behavior is determined not by the exercise of free choice, but by causative factors beyond the control of the person. The application of scientific techniques to the study of crime and criminology. (3.2 The Positivist School) 4. What is atavism? What evidence did early criminologist offer for the existence of atavistic traits? Atavism is a term used by Cesare Lombroso to suggest that criminals are physiological throwbacks to early stages in evolution. Lombroso describes the exis- tence of atavistic traits by, “the nature of the criminal,” as “an atavistic being who reproduces in his person the ferocious instinct of primitive humanity and the inferior animal. (3.2 The Italian School) 5. What body types did William H. Sheldon Identify? Which of these did he these did he think was most likely to be criminal? William H Sheldon identified 4 body types, they are: Endomorph-soft and round whose “digestive viscera are massive and highly developed” (overweight and large stomach) Mesomorph-athletic and muscular whose “somatic structures are in the asce- nancy” (larger bones and considerable muscle mass) Ectomorp- thin and fragile who has “long slender poorly muscled extremities, with delicate pipestem bones” Balanced-average build without being overweight, thin or exceedingly muscu- lar.
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Mesomorphs body types are what William H. Sheldon believed was most likely to be- come a criminal. (3.2 Constitutional Theories) 6. What have research studies in the field of genetics had to say about possible cause of crime?
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