Module 2RELS 373January 23, 2017Hinduism and MusicHinduismName associated with the Indus river, Indus valley (modern day Pakistan)Sanatana Dharma = eternal righteousness or eternal dutyoSacrifice of animalsoDharma attached to caste system (who is your duty to?)Stages of Hinduism1) Vedic (knowledge of rishis) (path of rituals)Rishis (plural)oSage or enlightened being (social institutional dimension of religion)oMen who could hear the sounds of the universe – sound issacredom (aum) – this is the centric sound of the universe (creation)ouniverse brought into being by sound – the power of sound: Hinduism todayreciting mantras of the Rishis.oRishis brought in knowledge from the universe and brought that knowledge intothe Vedas.Veda: ideaoSacred “ah-ha” momentoIdeas of universe, gods.oEarliest Veda: Rig Veda – 1028 hymns (hymn to Purusha contained in the rigveda)oLatest Veda: Sama VedaHymns:Caste: part of the Vedic periodVedic pantheon: religion based on fear of the gods. The gods are to be fearedrespectfully (nature gods).Hymn to Purusha(Purusha Sukta)Analysis2) Upanishadic (philosophical knowledge) (the path of knowledge)Gurus: Enlightened master – philosophically speculativeoOntology: the study of beingo800 BCE some reformers start to question the killing of animals, and then Guru’sstart to rise.Philosophy: life is made of two things. Shift from fear to philosophical speculationAtman: soul/inner-selfBrahman: all pervading essence of the universe
oBrahmin (priest)Samsara: cycle of reincarnation (suffering) – birth, life, death, rebirth.Karma: cosmic law of justice: ACTION3) Bhakti (the path of devotion) – bhakti yoga: devotional yoga, path to be unified with thetranscendence of the universe, Brahman.Avatars: Vishnu – the god of light, he is the source (in mainstream Hinduism) of allAvataras: one who takes on another form. (Vishnu takes on shapes and otherincarnations)EpicsBhagavad Gita: the song of the Lord (Krishna), comes down to earth to interact withArjuna.Yoga: to be yoked – to be unified with (in this case Brahman)January 30, 2017Stages of HinduismVedasThe Rig Vega and the Sama Veda contain hymns to the Vedic godsRig Veda contains the Hymn to PurushaMusic is fashioned from the ingredients of the Sama VedaHymns to Agni – God of the fireCome Agni, praised with song,To feast and sacrificial offering:Sit as Hotar (the reciter) on the holy grass! (Sama Veda I:1.1)-Animals sacrificedO Agni, God the people sing reverent praise to thee for strength: with terrors you devastate theenemy I seek with song your mediation, offering-bearer, lord of wealth, immortal, superior oversacrifice (Sama Veda I:2.1-2).-Singing reverent, praise, sing = praise (music making = praise)-Music as seeking Agni-Hymns to Indra – God of the StormThe singers hymn thee, they who chant the psalm ofPraise are lauding thee. The Brahmins have exalted thee, O Satakratu (one who has sacrificed100 horses) .