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Unformatted text preview: GEOLOGY FINAL EXAM REVIEW • QUIZ 1 MATERIAL • SiO4 Tetrahedron – negative charge of 4 • 10^-8 cm – Angstrom • Paleontology – study of fossils • One kilogram in pounds – 2.2 units • Hydrogen – Element with 1 proton • First mineral to form in Bowen Reaction Series – Olivine • SiO2 (SI+4O2-4) – Balanced Compound • 8 km – 5 miles • First Six Elements of Periodic Table – H, He, Li, Be, B, C • Radius of the earth – 6370 KM • Geothermal gradient of 20 degrees C/km, the temp at the center of the earth – 127400 C • Atom is the smallest possible particle of an element that retains the properties of that element– TRUE • Common stable element – Helium • Dissimilarities in abundances of elements between the sun and the earth’s crust suggest that the earth is chemically zoned • Following Bowen Reaction Series, would olivine commonly occur with quartz? No • Bragg’s law is used to calculate interatomic distances in minerals. A common form of the expression used is: nl/sin q = 2d • For the liquidus/ solidus graph question the composition of solid “s” is An80 • If the solid ‘s’ were melted at its present temp, the composition of the coexisting liquid would be: An70 • If the solid ‘s’ were melted completely, the composition of the liquid would be: An80 • Relationship of 1kb = 3km, the pressure at the center of the earth would be: 2123 Kb • How many atoms can occur in 1 cubic cm? 10^24 atoms • In a magma chamber that has undergone crystal settling, the sequence of rocks from bottom to top would be: gabbro-diorite-granite • If 11 parts by volume of 50% SIO2 magma were to be completely mixed with 2 parts of volume of 70% SIO2 magma, the mixed magma would have which of the following SIO2% context? 53% (average) • The average density of the earth is: 5.1 GM/CC^3 • TRUE: Element substitution in minerals requires that the elements be approximately similar in size. • The concept of free energy is related to energy like property of a system in thermodynamic equilibrium. • In Bowen Reaction Series, the sequence of minerals from high to low temperature in the discontinuous series would be olivine-pyroxene-amphibole-biotite • The volume of planet earth in cubic meters is: 1 X 10^21M^3 • Assume that water saturated granite will melt at a temperature of 600 degrees C under a wide range of pressures. If the geothermal gradiens in a particular area was 25 degrees C per kilometer, what is the minimum depth at which granite would begin to melt? 24 km • Which pair of rocks are associated with high silica content? Rhyolite & Granite • If all the igneous rocks in the world were to be analyzed, the two most common torck types seen with respect to silica contect would be : Basalt and Rhyolite • The velocity of light in vacuum is: 3 x 10^8 meters per second • As magmas travel through the solid earth, they can move both parallel to or cut across pre-existing layers. When they cut across layers the shape is called dike • TRUE : Granite is the plutonic equivalent of Rhyolite •...
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- Fall '08
- Igneous rocks, Bowen Reaction Series, moderate slopes