EDUC 665_Retention Theory Timeline.docx - Running head...

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Running head: RETENTION THEORY TIMELINE 1 Retention Theory Timeline Douglas B. Wall Liberty University
RETENTION THEORY TIMELINE 2 Retention Theory Timeline 1937 – “College Student Mortality” - The College Student Mortality was one of the first studies on retention of college students conducted by John H. McNeely that “examined demographic characteristics, social engagement and reasons for departure” and published by the U.S. Office of Education (Demetriou & Schmitz- Sciborski, 2011, p.301). Student mortality is defined as students remaining in college through graduation (McNeely, 1938). McNeely noted causes of student mortality as dismissal for failure in work, financial difficulties, death and sickness, students were needed at home or had a lack of interest, as well as various miscellaneous causes and noted several factors that contributed to student mortality from age of entrance, location of home in relation to school, lodging, participation in extracurricular activities, to engagement in part-time work (McNeely, 1937). The study of college student mortality was a joint effort with 60 universities and the federal government to assist graduates or former students in work during the years of the depression (McNeely, 1937). 1970 – “Spady’s Sociological Model of Student Dropout” - William Spady based his sociological model of student dropout, in part on Durkheimain’s theory of suicide, by proposing five variables of academic potential, normative congruence, grade performance, intellectual development and
RETENTION THEORY TIMELINE 3 friendship support that contribute to social integration and the lack of which can lead to dropout with academic performance as a major factor (Demetriou & Schmitz-Sciborski, 2011). Bean (1981) looks at how Spady’s model, like Durkheimain’s model of suicide, draw on friendship and social groups to “reduce suicide, and by analogy, dropout” (p.7). DesJardins, Ahlburg, and McCall (1998) note that costs to the student, the institution and society result from students withdrawing from college such as society losing revenue due to the fact that graduates tend to earn more money. This phenomenon was more prevalent during this time period because of the increase in college enrollments due to the GI Bill and the importance of education from the government (Schuh, Jones, & Torres, 2017). 1975 – “Tinto’s Model of Student Integration” - According to Vincent Tinto, students enter higher education with “a variety of attributes, family and community backgrounds, educational experiences and achievements, skills and value orientations” and it is the institutions responsibility to help the student integrate those attributes into their social and academic systems to ensure persistence and success, and

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