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See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: Functions of thyroid hormones Chapter · March 2016 CITATIONS 0 READS 378 3 authors , including: Some of the authors of this publication are also working on these related projects: Pediatric pulmonology View project Pediatric critical and intensive care View project Nishanth Dev 28 PUBLICATIONS 36 CITATIONS SEE PROFILE Jhuma Sankar All India Institute of Medical Sciences 132 PUBLICATIONS 396 CITATIONS SEE PROFILE All content following this page was uploaded by Jhuma Sankar on 09 April 2019. The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file.
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Functions of Thyroid Hormones Nishanth Dev 1 , MD; Jhuma Sankar 2 , MD; Vinay MV 2 , MD Authors affiliation : 1 Department of Medicine, ESIC Medical College and Hospital, Faridabad 2 Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India Corresponding Author : Dr. Nishant Dev Assistant Professor Department of Medicine ESIC Medical College and Hospital, Faridabad Phone number: +919717283133 E-mail: Source of support : Nil Conflict of Interest : None Funding : None Word count : Text : 6271 No of tables : 01 No. of Figures : 02 Key words : Thyroid hormones function; T3; T4; TR α -1; TR β -1; TRH; TSH; HPT axis; de- iodinase; TBG; brown adipose tissue; white adipose tissue; BAT; WAT; fetal growth
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Abstract Thyroid hormones (THs) play critical roles in growth, differentiation and metabolism. They are important for optimal functioning of almost all tissues with major effects on metabolic rate and oxygen consumption. The thyroid gland secretes two biologically active thyroid hormones: thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3). TH synthesis and secretion is exquisitely regulated by a negative-feedback system that involves the hypothalamus, pituitary, and thyroid gland (the HPT axis). Some of the important functions of the thyroid hormones include- neural growth and differentiation, myocardial contractility, regulation of bone formation and resorption, development and function of brown and white adipose tissue, cholesterol metabolism and synthesis, and in-utero they are important for fetal growth and differentiation. Thus, given their pleotropic effects, thyroid hormones are critical for survival and optimal functioning of the human body. Key words: Thyroid hormones function; T3; T4; TR α -1; TR β -1; TRH; TSH; HPT axis; de- iodinase; TBG; brown adipose tissue; white adipose tissue; BAT; WAT; fetal growth
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1. Introduction: Thyroid hormones (THs) play critical roles in growth, differentiation and metabolism. They are important for optimal functioning of almost all tissues with major effects on metabolic rate and oxygen consumption. Therefore, it is not surprising that, thyroid gland disorders are among the most common endocrine disorders. Thyroid dysfunction affects several hundreds of people worldwide. Therefore it is important to understand its functions so as to clinically correlate with conditions causing deficiency or excess of the hormones.
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