APUSH Labor History Review (3).pdf - APUSH LABOR UNION REVIEW Purpose of Organized Labor Workers unite within a trade industry or workforce to achieve

APUSH Labor History Review (3).pdf - APUSH LABOR UNION...

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APUSH LABOR UNION REVIEW Purpose of Organized Labor -Workers unite within a trade, industry, or workforce to achieve common goals -Union leadership negotiates on behalf of union worker members with owners/managers -Common goals include: higher wages, benefits, improved working conditions -Tactics of Labor Unions oCollective bargaining – uniting as a group to arbitrate with owners/managers over demands oPolitical action and efficacy – informed union members of government officials and policies affecting labor oPicketing – assemble in front of workplaces to protest ownership oStrikes – organized walkouts until demands met oBoycotts – cease buying particular goods/services oSlowdowns – deliberately slow down production and efficiency until demands met -Tactics of Owners/Managers Against Unions oPublic relations – use public media to promote ownership and denounce unions, sometimes as socialist, anarchist, or un-American oLockouts – shut down workplace therefore not paying workers oScabs – replacement workers oBlacklists – publicized lists of union members to prevent hiring oYellow-dog contracts – workers offered employment if they do not join unions oGovernment authorities/private security – call upon police force to break up strikes as threats to public interest and owner safety oCourt injunctions – use of court system to force employees back to work or face criminal/civil penalties Early 19thCentury -local and state trade unions developed in response to the industrialization during the First Industrial Revolution -Mechanics’ Trade Union Association (1927) oFirst labor union to include different trades -labor unions began using strikes to demand higher wages -Lowell System in textiles considered labor organization -Commonwealth v. Hunt(1842) oMassachusetts Supreme Court ruled labor unions are legal organizations and had the right to strike
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APUSH LABOR UNION REVIEW Gilded Age and Rise of National Labor Unions (1860s-1900) -Second Industrial Revolution resulted in economic expansion and developments of industries -Owners thrived with monopolies, cheap labor, limited regulation leading to the robberbarons -In response to cheap wages, poor working conditions, and unfair business practices, labor unions began organizing on a national level -National Labor Union (NLU) (1866) oOne of the first major national labor organizations oFavored arbitration over strikes oPlatform !8-hour workday, higher wages, monetary reform, and cooperatives !Secured 8-hour workday for federal employees oOffered membership to women, blacks, unskilled workers -Great Railroad Strike of 1877 oRailroad companies cut wages in response to Panic of 1873 oRailroad workers strike against Baltimore and Ohio Railroads leading to strikes across the northeast oStrikes become violent and deadly and federal troops are called in for the first time to police a labor dispute oLeads to negative public reaction to unions -Knights of Labor (1869) o
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