Long Bone Strength Activity Skeletal System.pdf - HASPI Medical Anatomy Physiology 08a Lab Activity D\u2019Angelo Moreira Name(s 2nd Period Date The

Long Bone Strength Activity Skeletal System.pdf - HASPI...

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251 HASPI Medical Anatomy & Physiology 08a Lab Activity The Skeletal System The skeletal system is primarily responsible for supporting the body and protecting vital organs. We are born with more than 270 bones that eventually fuse together as we grow, leaving adult humans with 206 bones. Bones are made up of a complex arrangement of inorganic minerals and a variety of tissues including bone, bone marrow, nerves, blood vessels, endothelial, and cartilage. They come in a variety of shapes and sizes depending on their location and function, but all bones are lightweight, strong, and hard. Bone has a variety of functions that include: Protection of organs (skull protects brain, ribs protect the heart, etc.) Support and framework for the human body Movement by providing attachment points for muscles pH balance of the blood by absorbing or releasing bone minerals Hematopoiesis (blood production) in blood marrow Fat storage in yellow bone marrow Sound transduction through small bones located in the ear canal Storage of growth factor in bone matrix Removal of heavy metals or foreign chemicals to detoxify blood and release slowly for excretion Mineral storage of calcium and phosphorous Production of hormones such as osteocalcin Bone Structure Bone tissue is created from several minerals, most notably calcium and phosphorous, that form carbonated hydroxyapatite with the chemical formula Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 . Bone mineral is created by osteoblasts and allows bones to withstand large amounts of compressional force. The other major component of bone matrix is organic collagen, which is a protein that gives bone the ability to withstand stretching forces. The major cells that contribute to building and breaking down bone structure are osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts. Osteoblasts are responsible for creating bone matrix and, therefore, building bone.
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