RODENTS • Rats and mice cause a huge loss of food worldwide. We will mostly be discussing the type of rodents called "commensal rodents". The word commensal means "sharing one's table". The word rodent means to "to gnaw". • Rodents will gnaw through many types of materials in order to reach a location including lead sheathing, cinder block, aluminum siding and some concrete. • We will be covering the three most common type of commensal rodents : • The HOUSE MOUSE , the NORWAY RAT , and the ROOF RAT . • We also have a section on SQUIRRELS , INSPECTIONS , RODENT EXCLUSIONS , AND SANITATION • Besides eating our food they spoil it by contamination with their feces, urine, or fur. • They can be found not only in our homes, but supermarkets, restaurants, warehouses, food processing facilities, livestock facilities, and farm fields. •
• Under stable conditions rodent movement for both rats and mice is limited . • A Norway or Roof rat will move within a diameter of 98 to 164 ft. and a house mouse,10 to 33 ft. • If conditions are unstable or there are changes such as new building, they may expand the diameter . • They may also expand their range in protected areas such as in sewers, in passages between buildings, and under groundcovers.
Field Identification of Domestic Rodents
*Table I Characteristics of commensal rodents Characteristic Norway Rat Roof Rat House Mouse General Appearance Large, robust Sleek, graceful Small, Slender Adult size weight(oz/g) length(nose to tip of tail) head and body(mm) tail(mm) 7-18oz/200-500g 7-9.5in/18-25cm 6-8 in/15-21cm 5-9oz/150-250g 6-8 in/16-20cm 7-10in/19-25cm 0.4-1 oz/12-30 g 2-3.5 in/6-9cm 3-4in/7-10cm Snout Blunt Pointed Pointed Ears Small, covered with short hairs;do not reach eyes Large, nearly naked;can be pulled over eyes Large, some hair Eyes Small Large, prominent Small Tail Dark above, pale beneath Uniformly dark Uniformly dark Fur Brown with scattered black; abdomen -gray to yellow-white;shaggy Gray to black ; abdomen, gray, or black;smooth Light brown, light gray; smooth Droppings Capsule shaped, 2cm/3/4-1 inch Spindle shaped, 1 cm/0.5 inch Rod shaped, 3-6 mm/0.5 inch Senses sight smell, tast, touch, hearing Poor,color blind Excellent Poor, color blind Excellent Poor, color blind Excellent Food Omnivorous(22-30grams/day) 0.8-1 oz. Omnivourous, especially fruits, nuts,grains, and vegetable (15-30 grams/day) 0.5-1.0 oz/day Omnivourous, prefers cereal grains(3 grams/day) 0.1 oz. day Water 15-30 ml/day 15-30 ml/day 3-9 ml/day;can subsist without water Feeding habits Shy(new object reaction);steady eater Shy(new object reaction);steady eater Inquisitive, nibbler Climbing Readily climbs;limited agility Very agile, active climber Good climber Nests Usually burrows Walls, attics, vines, trees;sometimes burrows Within structures, stored food; burrows Swimming Excellent swimmer Can swim Can Swim Home range radius 30-50 m/98-164 ft. 30-50 m/98-164 ft. 3-10m/10-33 ft.
- Fall '19
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