Ch. 28 - Period 7 The Second World War.doc - The Second...

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The Second World War What were the social and economic effects of WWII, especially in the West? How did the Allied forces win the war? What efforts did the Allies make top shape the postwar world? Attack on Pearl Harbor ended American neutrality o Gruesome, plastic explosives, flame throwers, proximity fuses, rockets, jets, atomic weapons o Racist propaganda on both sides, hatred for the enemy America’s Early Battles Setbacks in the Pacific Japanese captured numerous Allied outposts o Fall of Rangoon cut of Burma Road—China’s supply line o Empire from Dutch East Indies to Wake and Gilbert Islands Japanese naval leaders succumbed to victory disease: lust for territory that became downfall Japanese mistake and American luck enabled US Navy to frustrate Japan’s plans o Japan’s failure to destroy shore facilities at Pearl Harbor left it operational o Air raid on Tokyo by Hornet o American morale boosted Coral Sea and Midway US forces halted Japanese advance on Australia with two battles o Battle of the Coral Sea: American losses were greater, but Japanese were repulsed o Battle at Midway: American surprise attack, turning point in the Pacific war, demonstrated that aircraft carriers, not battleships, were decisive elements Setbacks in the Atlantic German submarine wolf packs wreaked havoc o During second half of 1942, losses of Nazi submarines diminished Mobilization at Home Attack on Pearl Harbor ended depression o War effort required work o Men subject to draft Economic Conversion Economy was mobilized for war by lend-lease and defense efforts o War Powers Act: gave president authority to reshuffle government agencies, empowered government to allot materials for defense War Production Board directed conversion of industrial manufacturing to war production
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o Roosevelt’s staggering production goals o Purpose was to confront enemy with crushing superiority War effort required conservation and production o People collected scrap metal, grew victory gardens o Office of Scientific Research and Development, Dr. Bush mobilized thousands of scientists to create and modify radar, sonar, fuse, bazooka, means to isolate blood plasma, innovations Pressure of wartime needs sent national production soaring o Government expense was greatest Financing the War Roosevelt preferred taxes over borrowing o Congress dominated by Conservatives who feared taxes o Revenue Act provided $7 billion, broadened tax structure, made everyone a taxpayer Federal government paid for 45% of costs with tax revenues o Government borrowed money to pay the rest o War-bond drives, Victory drive Basic economic problem finding workers o Everybody, even women were incorporated into economy Economic Controls Increased family income and government spending during war raised fears of inflation o Money was spent on scarce consumer goods o Congress authorized Office of Price Administration to set price ceilings o Rationing Wages and farm prices were not controlled o
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