APY 202 - 1 How to increase human population a Replacing inedible resources with edible resources allows for greater population growth b Humans stay

APY 202 - 1 How to increase human population a Replacing...

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1. How to increase human population a. Replacing inedible resources with edible resources allows for greater population growth b. Humans stay below carrying capacity i. Unconscious ii. Burden on mothers to have more than one dependent c. Food storage d. Mitigate effects of environmental fluctuations i. Native Americans would plant corn in multiple locations 1. Ready for anything a. Food insurance ii. Diversifying planting locations e. Prepare for different climates or yearly weather cycles i. Plant different crops 1. In 1 field plant both yams and millet a. Yams- wet b. Millet- dry f. animals i. domesticated ii. store surplus food by feeding it to animals 1. fatten animals to later eat iii. can take inedible food and convert it to edible food 1. pigs eat garbage and we can eat pigs iv. clean up streets 1. pigs eat poop and then we eat pigs v. grass can be converted to food via cows and goats 1. also, milk g. takes more work to support larger population i. can support more people on less land 1. more intensive ii. hunter/gatherer- 10-15 hours a week 1. farming- like 20 hours a week h. swidden i. slash and burn ii. works best in forest iii. dry out branches and then burn them iv. important 1. in tropical forests especially, very limited soil a. trees suck up all biomass b. biochemicals not available for humans 2. burning allows oxidation a. releases biochemicals b. reducing total amount of tree canopy
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i. not an extreme amount 3. cut down the trees about every 20 years a. have to let forest regenerate itself v. don’t have same degree of mobility as hunters/gatherers 1. not permanent settlements 2. burn around a circle a. allows forest to regenerate itself i. usually not so organized 3. walking garden a. abandon one end and keep chewing away at the forest i. eventually will have to move but get to stay in one place for a longer period of time vi. implications of staying in one place for a longer time 1. can have more stuff a. don’t have to carry everything with you b. pottery i. first pottery- probably cooking utensils ii. heat can’t get above 212 degrees 1. boiling point of water iii. heavy and fragile 2. can have more children a. can leave them at home b. can feed them from the garden i. diet is worse for farmers than from hunting/gathering 1. H/G eat varied diet of seasonal food 2. Farmers have to make sure they’re getting as many calories back as they can a. Emphasis on starches i. Basis of all farming diets ii. Potatoes, yams, rye, barley, etc. 3. People end up shorter 4. Don’t have to carry them as long 5. Don’t have to breast feed as long ii. Birth rate goes up 3. Elderly people no longer have to walk to keep up with group a. Can eat grains/ soft foods when teeth go b. Can be more elderly c. People start to live to full natural lifespan i. In H/G people decide for themselves when to go ii. 120 years is how long most people can go 1. Before that you died of something 4. Death rate goes up too
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a. Diet is worst b. Contamination opportunity is greater i. Human waste c. Contagion opportunity goes up d. Population increasing i.
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  • Fall '08
  • Gifford

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