Study Guide - Exam 2 N120 F2019.docx - 2019 N120 Exam 2 Study Guide Chapters\/Units on Vegetables Legumes Fruits Grains Pasta Sauces and Food

Study Guide - Exam 2 N120 F2019.docx - 2019 N120 Exam 2...

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2019 N120 Exam 2 Study Guide Chapters/Units on Vegetables, Legumes, Fruits, Grains, Pasta, Sauces and Food Preservation The exam will have 60 questions plus 5 extra credit questions and will be made up of multiple choice, T/F and matching questions. Plant Based Foods What are the various parts of a plant? Fruits, flowers, stems, shoots, seeds, leaves, tubers, roots, and bulbs What are vegetables? Any plant whose parts are used as food, the edible part of a plant accompanying the main course of a meal ex. broccoli, carrots, celery, zucchini, more alkaline . What are fruits? The seed-bearing structure in flowering plants formed by the ovary after flowering and fertilization which contains the seed/genetic material, usually more acidic, ex. apples, oranges, bananas, strawberries. What are seeds? A flowering plant’s unit of reproduction ex. beans, corn, lentils, peas . What are herbs? Plants used for their savory or aromatic properties derived from leaves ex. dill, mint, cilantro, sage, thyme Spices? Distinguished from herbs by their origins, from other parts of plant that are not the leaves like fruit, flower, bark, seeds, ex. allspice, saffron, cinnamon, anise, cumin, ginger Know examples of all of these (see diagram in slides). For optimal flavors, when should fresh herbs and ground seasonings be added to the cooking? At the end of cooking. When should whole spices be added? At the beginning so they can soak and release the flavor Know that plants cells have a cell wall whereas animal cells do not. Fiber is found in the cell walls of plants which help to provide structure/rigidity and shape to the cell . Can we digest fiber? no What benefit does fiber provide to humans? regulates bowel movements, lowers cholesterol, helps control blood sugar levels What are the two categories of fiber? Soluble and insoluble fiber . Which one can potentially help reduce cholesterol? soluble What is turgor and what happens to green leafy vegetables when turgor is lost? The rigid firmness of a plant cell resulting from being filled with water What are pigments? The natural coloring of the plant/animal tissue. What are the names of the various pigments found in plant foods? Carotenoids, chlorophylls, flavonoids Are any pigments related to a vitamin? Yes, beta-carotene related to vitamin A . What are some vegetables that are high in this vitamin? Carrots, pumpkins, spinach, winter squashes . In which cell parts/organelles are plant pigments found? Chloroplasts, stem cells, sepals What pigment is an excellent source of magnesium? Chlorophyll. What foods are high in this pigment? Spinach, kale, asparagus, broccoli Are the classes of pigments in vegetables and fruits similar? Yes. What about in legumes and grains? Would you expect to find chlorophyll in beef? No . What about beta-carotene in pork?
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From the experiments in lab, what do acids and bases do to the pigments? They enhance pigments of fat-soluble food and dull pigments of water-soluble food. How do acids and bases affect the texture of fruits and vegetables? They remain firm. Specifically, what happens to red cabbage when an acid is added to it?
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