Physics 1442 Lab Report.docx - Alex Vargas Course#1442 Unit 18 D.C Circuits Lab Report Introduction An electrical circuit is often a network made of a

# Physics 1442 Lab Report.docx - Alex Vargas Course#1442 Unit...

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Alex Vargas Course #1442 Unit 18: D.C. Circuits Lab Report Introduction An electrical circuit is often a network made of a closed loop, so that there is a return path for the current that is running through it. There are several categories of circuits that can be witnessed daily, classifications and types, like series or parallel. However, in this experiment, there will be an emphasis on D.C. circuits. D.C. circuits are made of a source of direct current, such as a battery, which is connected to a network of resistors and switches. When it comes to the circuit in the experiment, this type is a Multi-loop circuit, meaning that in order to figure out the unknown values and faults that will be presented throughout the different situations, Kirchhoff’s Laws will be used as a reference and guide. Theory Different types of circuits call for their own equations to be used. Resistors are an aspect to be looked at, so it is important to take note of them. When looking at a series of resistors, the share an equivalent single resistor with resistance, R ser , and the equation to use would be: R ser = R 1 + R 2 + R 3 + + R n When looking at a circuit where resistors are in parallel, they share an equivalent single resistor with a resistance, R par . The equation to be used would be: R par = 1/R 1 + 1/R 2 + 1/R 3 + + 1/R n A D.C. circuit calls for using Kirchhoff’s Laws, that being it will provide for a more accurate analysis of the complex workings the experiment calls for. Due to Ohm’s Law, the resistors are proportional to the voltage and current throughout the circuit. The relationship can be defined by: V = IR Here, the V is volts, I is amps, and R is resistance measured in ohms. The currents, voltages, and resistances throughout the circuit will be found using the following laws, therefore it is important to understand them. In order to get to Kirchhoff’s Laws correct, it must be set up in linear independent equations that are ordered by the Current Rule and the Voltage Rule. Firstly, the Current Rule is where the total current or charge entering the junction/node is the exact equal amount to the charge leaving it. That would make the first equation: I 1 + I 2 + I 3 = 0 1
As for the Voltage Rule, it explains how in any closed loop network, the total voltage around the loop is equal to the sum of all the voltage drops within the same loop, therefore also equal to zero. Those equations would appear as so: –V 1 + I 1 R 1 + I 3 R 3 = 0 -V 2 + I 2 R 2 + I 3 R 3 = 0 Another varied way to look at Kirchhoff’s Law would be to take a look at the equations as so: I 1 = V 1 - I 2 R 3 /R 1 + R 3 I 2 = (V 2 – V 1 R 3 /R 1 + R 3 ) * (1 / R 2 +R 3 +(R 3 2 /R 1 + R 2 )) There are two distinct types of faults that can be found within D.C. circuits that would cause them to not function correctly. The first kind is a “short,” where terminals of an

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