The_art_of_negotiation_A_critical_outloo.docx - INTRODUCTION Negotiation is a dialogue between two or more people or parties intended to reach an

The_art_of_negotiation_A_critical_outloo.docx -...

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10 INTRODUCTION Negotiation is a dialogue between two or more people or parties intended to reach an understanding, re- solve points of difference, gain advantage for an individual or collective, or to craft outcomes to satisfy various interests (Saner, 2000). It is a complex process leading to agreement based on compromise, if it reaches agreement at all. Negotiation involves a balance between giving what is asked and getting what is wanted. Negotiation has established itself as the first and most effective means for the peaceful resolu- tion of international conflicts. All wars and conflict end by states having a dialogue to achieve their in- terest. Diplomacy is one of the most important tools of foreign policy and international relations. Diplo- macy is the first step in the execution of foreign policy. Diplomacy is defined as the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of states. It usually refers to international diplomacy, the conduct of international relations ( Barston P. Ronald, 2006). And Negotiation is the most important tool of diplomacy, as clearly shown in this definition. Though ne- gotiation is hard to master, it now becomes the first tool in the execution of foreign policy. Great Diplo- matic Negotiation skill comes from experience. According to Berridge in his book, ‘Diplomacy: Theory and Practice,’ diplomatic negotiation consists of discussion between officially designated representatives that is designed to achieve the formal agreement of their governments to a way forward on an issue that has come up in their relations. This is particularly so in international politics (G.R Berridge, 2010). Diplomatic Negotiation can be bilateral, Treaty of Portsmouth between Japan and Russia; or multilateral through conferences like the GATT, WTO Rounds and WTO Ministerial conferences. Delegates from different states and international organizations are the ones that engage in Diplomatic Negotiation to discuss of issues of mutual or global interests. These issues can range from Education, Trade, Energy, Immigration Laws, Foreign Direct Investments, and Aid to global issues like Trade Liberalization, Nuclear Nonproliferation and Climate Change. Sometimes States convene official negotiation processes to settle a specific dispute or specific issue between several nations which are parties to a dispute, though there are technically no established rules or procedures. During Negotiations, representatives of states seek to advance their countries supreme, strategic and tactical national interests. These states’ representatives can be divided into two categories: politicians; and diplomats/civil servants. Consequently, negotiations between states can be held either on a political
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10 or on a diplomatic/official level. The political level is the highest level and mostly preceded and followed by diplomatic/official consultations. The category of diplomats and civil servants can also be subdivided, depending on the question of whether an ambassador/director-general, a young diplomat/policy adviser, or someone in between these ranks, is conducting the negotiations. Multilateral
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