Chapter 1_ Intro to Pharmacology Lecture.pdf - 4 Basic...

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4 Basic Terms Drug Any chemical that can affect living processes Pharmacology The study of drugs and their interactions with living systems Clinical Pharmacology Study of drugs in humans Therapeutics A.k.a. Pharmacotherapeutics The use of drugs to diagnose, prevent, or treat disease, or to prevent pregnancy Primary concern studied in this text The three most important properties of an ideal drug Effectiveness Safety Selectivity Additional properties of an ideal drug Reversible action Predictability Ease of administration Freedom from drug interactions Low cost Chemical stability Simple generic name Factors that determine the intensity of drug responses Administration Pharmacokinetics Pharmacodynamics Sources of individual variation Administration Important determinants of drug responses: Dosage
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Unformatted text preview: Size ○ Route ○ Timing ● Medication errors ● Patient adherence Pharmacokinetics ● Determining how much of administered dose gets to its sites of action ● Impact of the body on drugs ● 4 major pharmacokinetic processes: ○ Drug absorption ○ Drug distribution ○ Drug metabolism ○ Drug excretion Pharmacodynamics ● Impact of drugs on the body ● Drug-receptor interaction ○ Binding of the drug to its receptor ● Patient’s functional state ○ Influences pharmacodynamic processes ● Placebo effects ○ Also help determine the responses a drug elicits Sources of individual variation ● Physiologic variables ○ Age, gender, weight, etc. ● Pathologic variables ○ Diminished function of kidneys and liver ● Genetic variables ○ Can alter metabolism of drugs and predispose patient to unique interactions ● Drug reactions...
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