bio.docx - Biology notes N represents one copy of an organism\u2019s nuclear chromosomes(one set of chromosomes(defined by centromeres)n=23 unique C

bio.docx - Biology notes N represents one copy of an...

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Biology notes N represents one copy of an organism’s nuclear chromosomes (one set of chromosomes(defined by centromeres)n=23 unique) C represents the amount of DNA in one set of an organisms in the n number -genome described by the c value Plants have a larger genome than animals -Smaller genome more complex larger genome less complex based on intelligence -Larger genome does not mean more genes The number of chromosomes in the cell cycle remains 2n Graph questions Meiosis reduction in the amount of DNA Cells do not evolve populations do There is DNA in the mitochondria Mitosis happens through tubulin polymers tubulin is essential for cell division Double helix c3G a2t Has 3’ and 5’ polarity 3’ OH 5’ phosphate Antiparallel 3’ goes to 5’ DNA Polymerase must see a 3’OH need primer and template 3’ end is extension Replisomes are all the enzymes involved in replication DNA origin replication replication bubble 2 forks left and right Increases the efficiency PRIMERS (u no t) Somatic cell is always diploid throughout mitosis, but the amount of DNA is duplicated during interphase, especially in S phase. The amount of DNA may be represented as “C” for better understanding. The number of chromosome and the amount of DNA are 2n/2c in G1 phase during interphase. The number of chromosome and the amount of DNA are changed into 2n/4c in S phase. The amount of DNA is separated exactly half into two daughter cells in mitosis. The number of chromosome and the amount of DNA come back to 2n/2c after mitosis. Linear chromosomes reaches an end…. What happens? -after each DNA replication round it shortens and DNA could be affected -telomeres buffer your chromosomes (ttaggg, don’t code for anything not functional) -when the telomere is completely gone it reaches cell senescence Telomerase restores the length of telomerase( dose not stop it RESTORES it) -only active in germ cells and adult stem cells but coded in all therefore it can become active during cancer -extends the 3’ end
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- telomerase brings its own template(RNA dependant DNA polymerase) does this enough until primase comes and then DNA polymerase comes primer is restored and the telomere has then been restored. The problem happens in the 5’ end of the new strand and the 3’ end of the template of the lagging strand DNA damage: Exogenous- outside (uv light, chemicals x-rays) Androgines- Inside (DNA replicatation erroers, mitochondria) Exonuclease outise Endonuclease inside MUTATION IS A DOUBLE STRANDED CHANGE( next round of replication is when mutations start to occur) Double strand Break -repair by non homologous end joining ( special ligase just slops them all together) -2% coding DNA Sugar phosphate backbone is made of covalent bonds Base pairs weak hydrogen bonds cutting and pasting four DNA backbones results in one recombination event.
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  • Fall '13
  • TomHaffie

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